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25 Cards in this Set

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What problems developed in the Catholic Church in the early 16th century (1500s) in Western Europe?
Church officials were living a lavish lifestyle, selling of indulgences was common. Ordinary people felt it was too corrupt and money driven.
What was an indulgence?
A paper granting you pardon (forgiveness) for all your sins in exchange for money to the Church.
What monk allegedly nailed 95 Theses criticizing the sale of indulgences on the door of Wittenburg Church?
Martin Luther, in 1517.
What was the result of Martin Luther's criticism of the Church?
He was ordered to Wurms, Germany, to defend his views. When he refused to recant (take it back), he was excommunicated.
What were some of Luther's ideas?
Faith alone will save you, not paying priests to be saved. The Bible is the sole source of religious authority/truth. Read the Bible in your own language (vernacular).
What church was formed by Luther?
the Lutheran Church.
What changes were made by Luther?
He simplified the sacraments to baptism and communion. He translated the Bible into the vernacular (German) instead of Latin.
What French lawyer moved to Geneva Switzerland to form a religious community?
John Calvin.
What happened to him?
He was likewise ex-communicated.
What were some of Calvin's ideas?
The Bible is the source of religious truth. That God shows his favor on the elect (chosen) by their success on Earth. Predestination.
What was Calvin's idea of presdestination?
It was the idea that God already knows who is going to be saved/go to h-e -l - l. (H E double hockey sticks)
What churches came out of Calvin's ideas?
The Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, many Scandinavian Protestant churches, etc. etc.
Why did Henry the VII of England want to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon?
She had given birth to a daughter and he wanted a son. He wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady in waiting.
What did Henry do when the pope refused to annul his marriage?
He pushed Parliament into passing the Act of Supremacy in 1534, making him the head of the Church of England. Then he could give himself the divorce and marry Anne Boleyn.
What did the Church do when Henry approved this act?
It excommunicated him.
What church was created from Henry VIII's actions?
The Church of England (Anglican Church).
What Catholic Council in 1545 met to attempt to halt the breakaway and creation of all these new Protestant churches?
The Council of Trent.
What do historians call the reaffirming of Catholic church teachings?
The Catholic Counter Reformation (The Catholic Church strikes back, to quote Start Wars)
What was the Inquisition?
It was the Catholic church's inquests/trials of heretics (those going against Church teachings). It was harshest in Catholic Spain. Burning or exiling Jews, non Catholics, people accused of heresy.
What was the Codex?
An index of forbidden books such as those written by Luther or Calvin or translations of the Bible.
Who were the Jesuits?
A Catholic religious order that spread Catholicism and Catholic learning throughout the world.
What were the effects of the Reformation period?
(1) Religious unity in WESTERN Europe ended;

(2) One Hundred Years (of religious) Wars;


(3) Formation of many Protestant churches.

What happened to the six wives of Henry VIII?

"divorced, beheaded, died; divorced, beheaded, survived"

What split happened in 1054 in Europe

The Eastern Schism, also called the Great Schism of 1054. The Eastern Orthodox church broke away from the Catholic Church. They refused to accept the pope as its all-powerful leader.

The Papal Schism Washington a conflict over what?

It was a conflict between three men claiming to be the real 1378-1417.