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58 Cards in this Set

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The scientific nomenclature of the rat...
Rattus norvegicus
Term: toward the upper surface (back)
dorsal
Term: toward the lower surface (belly)
Ventral
Terms: toward the head
Anterior and Cranial
Terms: toward the tail
Posterior and Caudal
Term: toward the midline of the body
Medial
Term: toward the end of the appendage nearest the body
Proximal
Term: away from the midline of the body; toward the side
Lateral
Term: toward the end of an appendage farthest away from the body
Distal
Term: divides the body into dorsal and ventral
Frontal Plane
Term: Plane parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and perpendicular to dorsal-ventral axis
Frontal Plane
Term: divides the body into left and right halves
Sagittal Plane
Term: a cross secttion
Transverse
Term: plane perpendicular to the anterior-posterior axis of the body
Transverse
Term: plane parallel to the anterior-posterior axis and parallel to the dorsal-ventral axis
Sagittal
The six anatomical regions:
Cranial, Cervical, Pectoral, Thoracic, Abdomen, Pelvic
The hairy coat.
Pelage
The tactile sensors on the face.
Vibrissae (whiskers)
Aka nostrils
nares
The exposed teeth on the rat:
Incisors in the subterminal mouth where the upper lip has a cleft
The translucent membrane that may be drawn across the eyeball for protection.
nictitating membrane
The penis can be extended from the prepuce through what hole?
Prepurtial orifice
In males urine and sperm are secreted through what hole?
Urogenital oriface
What is the buldge of skin surrounding the penis called?
Prepuce
What are the five groups of vertebrae?
Cervical(7), thoracic(12), lumbar(6), sacral(5), caudal(27) CHECK???? on numbers!!!
What are the names of the two girdles that appendages attatch to to make up the appendicular skeleton?
Pectoral girdle (forelegs)
Pelvic girdle (hind legs)
What are the thin muscles that attatch to the skin?
Cutaneous trunci
What is the connective tissue that holds the skin to the body?
fascia
Which fat is specialized for heat production in the animal is stressed by low temperatures?
Brown fat
Muscles attach to bone by what connective tissue?
tendons
The end attached to the bone that does not move during contraction.
origin
The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves during a contraction.
insertion
Movement caused by the contraction of a muscle is...
action
Term: increase the angle of a joint
extensors
term: decrease the angle of a joint
flexors
term: move an appendage away from the midline of the body
abductors
term: move an appendage backward
retractors
term: move an appendage forward
protractors
term: move an appendage toward the midline of the body
adductors
term: rotate the palm or bottom of foot upward
supinators
term: rotate the palm or bottom of foot downward
pronators
Why is the mouth referred to as subterminal?
Because it is located at one end of the body
Which muscle is antagonistic to the biceps brachii?
Triceps brachii
Is the biceps brachii and extensor or a flexor?
flexor
Is the latissimus dorsi a retractor or a protractor?
retractor
Are the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor antagonistic?
NO: the action of the larger (pectoralis major) assisting in drawing the shoulder forward and rotating the arm inward, and the action of the smaller (pectoralis minor) assisting in drawing the shoulder downward and forward.
Which dorsal muscle is antagonistic to the pectoralis major?
Latissimus dorsi
Which muscle flexes the knee joint and retracts the leg?
biceps femoris
Biceps brachii...
muscle located on the anterior surface of the humerus

origin: scapula
insertion: radius
action; flexes the lower arm
triceps brachii...
on the sides and back of the upper arm

o; humerus and scaupla
i; elbow (olecranon)
a; extends the lower arm
spinotrapezius...
lays across the dorsal thoracic region of the rat

o; thoracic vertebrae
i; spine of the scapula
a; moves the scaupla upward and backward
acromiotrapezius...
central muscle of the trapezius group

o; cervical vertebrae
i; scapula
a; moves scapula dorsally
latissimus dorsi...
posterior to and partially covered by the spinotrapezius

o; thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
i; medial side of the humerus
a; moves the humerus dorsocaudad
external oblique...
muscle covers the sides of the abdominal cavity from the hip to the rib cage. its fibers are arranged at right angles to the fibers of the latissimus dorsi

o; lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs
i; linea alba and pelvis
a; compresses and retains the viscera and acts with the rectus abdominis to form a flexible ventral and lateral body wall
cutaneous trunci...
muscle attaches to the skin on the lateral and dorsal sides of the body

o; under the upper front leg
i; skin
a; moves the skin
biceps femoris...
in two bundles; it is located easily on the side of the thigh

o; ischium
i; distal portion of femur and proximal portion of the tibia
a; abducts the thigh and flexes the shank
gastrocnemius...
bulk of the calf muscle in the lower leg

o; distal end of femur
i; heel (calcaneus) by means of the tendon of Achilles
a; extends the foot
Name the three salivary glands.
Sublingual, parotid, and submaxillary