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108 Cards in this Set

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What is the Third leading cancer type?
Cancer of the bowels
to prevent cancer avoid what type of diet?
fats, red meats, fried, and bbq foods
What exams are done to screen for cancer of the bowels?
fecal occult blood and digital rectal exam
Colon cancer usually begins as a ______ and spred by these 3 ways.
polyp
direct extension
lymph and blood
seeding
what to look for as signs of cancer?
change in bowl habits,
bloody stool,
fullness, pain, fatigue, obstruction, gassy, crampy distension.
Tests that detect cancer
cbs, fecal occult, radiographics, live scan, colonoscopy, sigmoid oscopy
3 things that determine staging of cancer?
Depth of invasion of tumor
lymph nodes
signs of mastasticis
Hemicoletomy is what?
cutting tumor out
abdominoperineal resection is what?
invasive, extensive, removal "clean out"
what would you hear for bowel sounds if there is an obstruction?
hyperactive to diminished
swollen veins do to intrabdominal pressure, straining, pregnancy and obesity
herrorrhoids
Good management/prevention to prevent hemorrhoids
hygiene, sitz baths, tucks, fluids hi fiber
interference with intestianl ability to absorb nutrients
malabsorption
Bile salt, enzyme deficiency are signs of what?>
malabsorption
bacteria that interferes with intestianl ability to absorb results in what?
malabsorption
changes in intestinal mucosa result in what?
malabsorption
appendix is attatched to what?
cecum
causes of appendicitis are what?
obstruction
ulceration of mucosa
where does the pain start with appendicitis?
preiumbilical then moves to lower right quadrent
the site of pain associated with appendicitus is also called what?
mcburneys
rebound tenxderness is found when checking for what?
appendicitis
leukocytes are what? when appendicitis is suspected?
mildly hi
inflamation of the stomach , intestinal tract, especially small bowels.
gastroenteritis
how is gastroenteritis transmitted?
fecal/oral
types of gastroenteritis are
Viral
bacterial
parasitic
e-coli, campylobacter, shigellosis are what type of gastroenteritis?
bacterial
how to manage gastroenteritis
fluids, rest bowel, antibiotics, antidiarrheals, hand washing
what ethnicity is 5x as likely to develope Chronic inflammatory bowel disease?
jewish, european descent.
inflammatory bowel disease is more common in rural or urban areas?
urban
more superficial, continous inflammation limited to colon and rectum
ulcerative colitis
with ulcerative colits, mucosa is what?
red with edematous lesions
Bloody diarrhea, pain cramping, anorexia are common signs associated with what?
ulcerative colitis
Toxic Megacolon is very common with what disease?
COLITIS
What IS TOXIC MEGACOLON
PARALYZED BOWEL
complications that can arise from colitus are:
hemorrhage,
hypovolemia, perforation
fistulas
medication management for Colitis includes:
salicylate compunds
corticosteroids
immunosuppressives, anti diarrheals
management for colitis includes
medications, diet , surgery
What is gastritis?
Inflammation of gastric mucosa
What are signs (manifestations) of Gastritis?
pain, gas, N&V, reflux, fullness, belching, indigestion, possible diarrhea
How is pernicious anemia (associated with gastritis)controled?
Vit B-12 shots
elderly hae pernicious Anemai due to?
thinned stomach mucosa and atrophy
loss of the intrinsic factor that aids in absorption of Vitamine b-12 leads to what?
pernicious Anemia
Management for gastritis include
medication
diet
stress reduction
surgery
A diet for Gastritis is as follows
bLAND, SMALL MEALS
what type of meds are used with Gastritis?
Antacids, H2 receptors, mucosa barriers, antibacterials, b12
Post op problems with Gastritis are?
ulcerations
hemorrhage, reflux,
distention, fistulas, pyloric obstruction
Nursing interventions for Gastritis include
monitor for complications
ng tub placement
comfort
small frequent meals
Complications with Peptic ulcer disease
Bleeding, perforation, obstruction
sudden, sharp pain in mid-epigastric area could be what?
perforation r/t peptic ulcer disease
obstruction of the pyloric r/t Peptic ulcer disease are because of what?
scarring, edema and inflammation
management for pt with peptic ulcers include what labs?
i and o, hct, hgb, cbc
Common meds used with peptic ulcer disease include?
antiinfective, prilosec, prevacid, zantac, carafate
Diet involved with Peptic Ulcer disease is as followed?
limit irritating foods, no bed time snacks
Common surgical procedures involved with peptic ulcers disease are?
Gastroenterrostomy,
Vagotomy,
Gastrectomy
anterectomy
in a pt with peptic ulcer disease, a vagotomy surgery is required to do what?
eliminate gastric acid secreting cells
in a pt with peptic ulcer disease, a gastrectomy is performed by doing what>
remove part of the stomach (billroth i or ii, or total
A patient with peptic ulcer disease is in need of an antrectomy. What does this operation do?
removes antrum the curved part of the stomach
post op concerns with a patient with peptic ulcer disease include:
Nutrition
dumping syndrome
common after billroth ii, happens half hour after eating meals, pt gets dizzy, tacy, sweating syncope, fullness, distention, cramping this is a sign of what?
dumping syndrome
post op concerns related to nutrition with peptic ulcer disease include DEFICIENCIES IN THESE?
VIT B 12, FOLIC ACID,AND CALCIUM ABSORPTION DEFICIENCEIS
increase protein and fat and decrease carbs, no liquid with meals and lay down on left side
post op concerns with peptic ulcer disease
disorder of GI motility related to diet and lifestyle
IBD
Pickled fods, smoking, alcohol, familial, hpyloric infection are risk factors for?
Gastric Cancer
predisposition, tumor marker
familial
High fats, fresh fruit, gas producing foods, alcohol, analgesics use, stress, lactose intolerant are risk factors for?
IBD
management of IBD are
client education,
diet changes
medications
stress management
medications for ibd
anti laxative, prevacid, nexium, reglan
weakness in abdominal wall through which a segment of bowel or other abdominal structure protrudes through
Hernia
this hernia occures in elderly men due to weakness of muscles
inguinal
This hernia occures in obese or pregnant woman
femoral
this type of hernia occure in obese or pregnant woman and babies at birth
unbilical hernia
this type of hernia occurs after surgeries
incisional
three classification of hernias are
Reducible
irreducible
strangulated
Reducible hernai is one that ?
can be pushed back in with use of a binder or with gental pressure
irreducible hernia is one that
cant be pushed back in, could become ischemic and turn into a strangulated hernia
this type of hernia requires a surgical emergency,
strangulated hernia
assessment for a hernia is to do what?
look for a bulge, if no bowel sounds could have obstruction or strangulation
Colorectal cancer risks include"
genetics, age, diet , ibd
to reduce risk for colorectal cancer you should change your diet by?
reducing fats, fried foods, red meat
symptoms of cancer of the colon include?
changes in bowel habits
partial or complete impairment of intestinal flow, common to the small bowel especially the ileum
intestinal obstruction
mechanical causes of intestianl obstruction include
tumors, adhesions, hernia, fecal impaction and cancer, telesscoping
nonmechanical causes of intestinal obstruction are?
toxin, bacteria, neurogenic (paralytic ileus)
vascular causes of intestinal obstruction are>
occlusion to celiac, mesenteric areteries, ischemia sets in this is serious
Assessment of abdomial pain is typically the higher the obstruction the_______ the pain
more sever
localized pain in the abdomin means
it is bad and could be strangulation
generalized pain in the abdomen could be sign of what?
bowel obstruction and not as bad as if it was locallized
clear vomit means what?
pyloric
if you vomit up bile and mucous it is a problem where?
small bowel
If you vomit up orange.brown and it smells like feces you may have what>
ileus obstruction along with bacteria invasion, Poor prognosis
altered bowel sounds heard with an obstrucion are like this?
hyperactive up until obstruction then they diminish
swollen and distended veins in the rectal area
hemorrhoids
management of hemorrhoids include?
hygiene, sitz bath , tucks
a good diet for hemorrhoids is what>?
increased fluids and high fiber
surgical management for hemorrhoids include freezing and is no longer done is called what>?
cryosurgery
topical meds used for hemorrhoids are
lidocanine, nupercainal,
if itching and inflamation is present with hemorrhoids, the health care provider perscribes what?
steroid such as hydrocortisone.
interference with intestinal ability to absorb nutrients is called
malabsorption syndrome
signs of malabsorption syndrom include
fatty stools, bloating gas brusing, bone pain.
bile salt and enzyme deficiencey bacteria changes in intestinal mucosa, altered lymphatic vascular circulation are all causes for what?
malabsorption syndromes
a diet that should be avoided with malabsorption syndrom include
WHEAT BARLEY GLUTEN
malabsorption syndrome is more common in what type of individual?
female
fair, fat, forty
if you see gray stooks and dark uring that is foamy during an assessment, this could mean what?
malabsorption syndrome
malabsorption syndrome diagnostics would be?
liver function
cbc
serum/urin amylase
abd untrasound, chalangiography
inflammation of pancreas due to activation of pancreatic enzymes that destroy the pancreas
Acute pancreatitis
what is the main function of the gall bladder?
store bile
inflammation of the panrewas dut to activation of pancreatic enzymes thatdestroy the pancreas (autodigestion)
Acute pancreatitis
what are some causes of acute pancreatitis?
gallstone obstrucion
excessive alcohol
trama, tumors
metabolic, renal , gi complications
viral , drug toxicity