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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the fluids located inside the cells called?
What are the fluids located outside the cells?
Extracellular fluid includes intravascular fluid which is ____, and there is 3 liters of fluid in this compartment and also interstitial fluid which is in between cells, bathes cells, and includes lymph.
This loss is what we can see it comes from the kidneys, intestinal tract, and skin
This is loss we can't see such as sweat and exhalation
The patients input should approximate their ______. should near to or around a 1-300 cc difference.
A fever would increase what type of loss?
insensible loss
Vascular volume ____ with hemorrhage.
Normal kidney output should be around ____ cc/ hour
what four electrolytes have a positive charge?
sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium
what two electrolytes have a negative charge?
chloride and phosphate
What three electrolytes are located inside the cells(intracellular)?
potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus
What three electrolytes are located outside the cells (extracellular)?
sodium, calciu, and chloride
What is the normal range for sodium?
135-145 mEq/L
What is the normal range for Potassium?
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What is the normal range for phosphorus?
2.7-4.5 mEq/L
What is the normal range for Calcium?
8.5-10 mEq/L
What is the normal range for magnesium?
1.5-2.5 mEq/L
What electrolytes would you have problems with if you had cystic fibrosis?
Sodium, potassium, and chloride
What two things would you have problems with if you had emphysema?
sodium and blood gases
What would you have a problem with if you were on loop diuretics or digoxin?
1 lb of weight = how much fluid?
With fluid volume excess your pulse would be what?
full and bounding
With FVD your pulse would be what?
weak and thready
If you had sedative effects what two electrolytes would you look at?
magnesium and Calcium
If there was a problem with LOC what would you look at?
This electrolyte's normal range is 135-145 mEq/L and assists with generation and transmission of nerve impulses and is an important part of the Na-K pump. If this is out of balance you would think neurological/brain problems. It maintains volume of body fluids.
When you excrete sodium you save what?
In the renin angeiotension system which is partially regulated by sodium, ECF decreased, renin produced by the kidneys then angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II then ____ is secreted and sodium and water is retained causing the vascular volume to go up
A cause of this would be more water than Na: vomitting, sweating, and only drinking water, D5W, burns. S/S think heat exhaustion: urine output increases; decreased specific gravity, nausea, abdominal cramps, HA, dry mucous membranes. To treat this you would replace Na slowly.
hyponatremia, more common than hyper
causes hyperventilation, heat stroke, decrease in fluid intake, use of corticosteroids. BP can be either hyper or hypo. SALT: Skin is flush, specific gravity increases, agitation (tremors, weakness, restless, change in LOC), low grade fever, and thirst (swollen dry tongue)
To treat you restrict Na, give fluids slowly, daily weights. If you give fluids too fast it causes the cells to swll in brain; and increases pressure and you can die.
Normal level is 3.5-5.0mEq/L think heart!!!
Its function is to transmit nerve impulses and allows proper function of skeletal and cardiac muscle.
The only way to get rid of excess K is through what?
NG tube suctioning decreases potassium, irrigation with tap water would increase the loss of potassium so you should irrigate with what?
normal saline
Causes of this would be vomitting, NG suction, Diuretics (Lasix), not eating, alcoholism, steroid use. SUCTION: skeletal muscle weakness, U wave changes, constipation, toxicity of digitalis, irregular and weak pulse, orthostatic hypotension, numbness around the mounth.
To treat administer this on a pump never IV push.
Causes of this would be kidney troubles, aldosterone secretion, excessive intake (blood transfussions) because K is inside the cells and when they are being infused they may break causing potassium to spill out. With S/S think muscles: heart, from mild to sever hyperexcitability- flaccid, respiratory muscles and cardiac, numbness and tingling. To treat: dialysis, calcium gluconate, glucose and insulin, kayexelate which removes K and exchanges for Na, and cardiac monitoring
normal level 2.7- 4.5 primarily lives in bones and teeth; inside the cell. Functions: promotes nerve and muscle action, present for nerves, RBCs and nervous system to function normally; assiste with metabolism of CHO, fats, proteins, helps us use vitamin B, helps acidify the urine to decrease stones; it has an inverse relationship with calcium. and is regulated by the PTH.
Causes of this would be glucose and insulin administration, alcohol withdrawal, and diuretic use. S/S IMBIBING: irritability, malaise, bleeding, inflammation, bone or muscle pain, infection risk, numbness, and generalized weakness, dysphagia. To treat encourage foods that contain phosporus.
Causes: chemo, renal failure, phosphate enemas large intake of Vitamin D, and when babies receive cow milk too soon. S/S: CHEMO: cardiac irregularities, hyperreflexia (Chvostek's and Trousseau's sign) eating poorly, muscle weakness, parethesia, and numbness, and oliguria. To treat: adequately hydration and monitor for signs of hypocalcemia.
Normal: 1.8-2.7 mEq/L. It is excreted by the kidneys and its functions include: assisting in metabolism of CHO and proteins, maintains electrical activity in nerves and muscles, important for neuromuscular function. If it is out of balance think muscle problems and the effect that could occur on the nervous system, this and potassium increase and decrease together. and this makes the vascular system dilate.
Causes of this are diarrhea, alcoholism, anorexia, and bulimia. S/S: STARVED: Seizures, tremors, twitching, tetany (laryngospasm), arrhythmias, rapid heart rate, vomitting, emotional lability, and deep tendon reflexes (monitor every 30 min). To treat administer Mg sulfate keep calcium gluconate and trach tray at bedside, assess swallow reflexes, and practice seizure precautions.
Causes are laxative use, renal failure, and hyperparathyroidism. S/S: RENAL: Reflexes decreased, EKG changes, N/V, appearance flushed (vasodilation), lethargy. Treat with calcium gluconate
Normal: 8.5- 10.5 mg/dl. found in teeth and in bones. Parathyroid pulls this from the bones, calcitonic keeps it in the bones, it has an inverse relationship with phosphorus, and you must have vitamin D to utilize it. It functions includes: nerve impulse transmission (muscle contraction and relaxation), helps with blood clotting, needed for vitamin B12 absorption, and must have for strong bones and teeth.
Causes of this would be hypoparathyroidism, radical neck, thyroidectomy, alcoholism, and parathyroid removal. S/S: muscles tone; chvostek's and trouseus sign, arrhythmias, deep tendon reflexes, mind changes, and swallowing difficulties. To treat: vitamin D, Amphogel, Iv Calcium gluconate. Have trach tray, ambu bag and calcium gluconate near by. When PTH is secreted, calcium is pulled form the bones and teeth
Causes are hyperparathyroidism, thiazides, immobilization. S/S think sedative: kidney stones, deep tendon reflexes, muscle tone, LOC, change in vital signs. To treat administer fluids, phosphosoda, lasix, and ambulate. Must have calcium gluconate and trach tray at bed side. Get patient up and mobile ASAP.
Normal 95-106. Function is Acid base balance. When sodium is retained so is this.
Causes: low salt intake, exclusive D5W, diuresis, prolonged N/V, diarrhea, NG suction, cystic fibrosis. S/S: agitation, irritability, hyperactive DTR, muscle cramps, tetany, weakness, and seizures, to treat IV chloride and K replacements, use NS not tap water to irrigate.
Causes increased intake of salt, metabolic acidosis, renal failure. S/S: weakness and lethargy; hypernatremia, Kussmaul's breathing, tachycardia, edema. Treatment: vital signs and safety considerations.
The serum sodium level reflects the ratio of ____ to water, not necessarily the loss or gain of sodium. Sodium imbalances are typically associated with imbalances in ECF volume.
As the plasma osmolality increase, the thirst center in the ____ is stimulated, and the individual seeks fluids.