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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
R. temporal lobe
music
L. temporal lobe
speech
Sound wave
(physical properties)
mechanical energy

attributes:
1. freq
2. amp
3. complexity
frequency
PITCH

# cycles wave completes in amnt of time
- hertz = 1 cycle/sec

ШШ high ... ЦЦ low ~ ~
amplitude
LOUDNESS

intensity of stim, height of wave
- decibels

Ш high-loud ... ш low-soft
pure tones
sounds w/single freq

ex. tuning fork
complex tones
mixing of wave freq
fundamental freq
rate waveform patten repeats

lowest freq
overtones
higher-freq waves that vibrate @ whole # multiples of fundamental freq
prosody
melodical tone of spoken voice (music)

R. temporal lobe
timbre
sound quality
outer ear
pinna (funnel)
middle ear
ossicles
(malleus, incus, stapes)
(hammer, anvil, stirrup)

cochlea
basilar membrane
hair cells
cochlea
contain auditory receptor cells
basilar membrane
receptor surface in cochlea

filled w/lymphatic fluid

waves → neural activity
hair cells
sens. neuron, tipped by cilia

outer: connect bas. & tectorial
inner: connect bas.
peak displacement on basilar membrane
fast freq...peak @ base of memb

slow freq...peak @ apex of memb
waves to AP (auditory)
1. vibrate mid ear (stapes)
2. hair move - bas & tect memb
3. open K+ chanels
4. depolarization...cause EPSP
5. if enough...AP in cran nerv #8
Heschl's gyrus
where primary auditory cortex is
plantum temporale
(temporal plane)
2ndary cortex behind Heschl's

- larger on L in R-handed ppl
Wernicke's area
rear of L. temporal lobe

- language comprehension
lateralization
funct. localized on 1 side of brain
insula
lateral fissure, cortical tissure related to lang
tonotopic representation
sound waves processed from low → high

in basilar memb
detecting location of sound
1) arrival time
- medial part of olivary complex

2) loudness
- ↑ freq don't bend round head (louder on 1 side)
- laterl part of superior olive
detecting patterns in audition
cortical auditory neurons

- distinguish vocalizations
(temporal auditory cortex)
olfactory epithelium
receptor surface
olfactory epithelium pathway
1. Receptor process ends in cilia
2. mucous layer dissolve chems
3. if affected by chemosignal...activate G protein
4. open Na channels...Δ memb pot
olfactory pathway
1. receptor to olfactory bulb
2. to glomeruli (ball of dendrites)
3. synapse w/mitral cells
4. to forebrain
Whitten Effect
W. cycle together
vomernasal organ
detect pheromones

receptor → olfact. bulb → amyg & hypo
flehmen
response to novel cat/urine, raise lip to close air passage

(in bulls & cats)
taste receptors
sweet
salty
sour
bitter
umami
umami
sensation of glutamate & protein
microvilli
receptor tips

open ion channel
solitary tract
main gust. nerve

made up of:
7 - facial
9- glossopharyngeal
10- vagus
Taste receptor areas of tongue
1. circumvallate papillae (near esophagus)
2. foliate papillae (sides of tongue)
3. fungiforrm papillae (tip of tongue)
transduction of salty
1. influx Na to Na channel
2. release Ca
3. help NT travel to pre-syn terminal
4. exocytosis
5. NT to gustatory afferent axon
transduction of sour
1. influx hydrogen to Na channel
2. release Ca
3. help NT travel to pre-syn terminal
4. exocytosis
5. NT to gustatory afferent axon