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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pleasure principle
cling to false notions of themselves

DA plays role
Neurological disorders
1. genetic error (Huntington's)
2. progressive cell death (Parkinson's)
3. rapid cell death (stroke, brain injury)
4. loss of neural connections (MS)
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
high levels amino acid b/c defect in enzyme

severe retardation
(treatable)
How to ID behav disorders
MRI & PET
treatments for disorders
- neurosurgical
- pharmacological
- electrophysiological
- behavioral
Neurosurgical
alter brain act

1. damage dysfunct area
2. stim area w/electodes
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
electrode in globus pallidus/subthalamic nuc...controlled by patient

ex. Park: normal move.
electrophysiological treatments
- ECT
- TMS
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
less drastic, precise (vs ECT)

used for depress & schizo
pharmacological treatments
neuroleptic & antianxiety
(led revoltion)

(-): fatigue, less sex drive
* some motor disturbance
Tardive dyskinesia
can't stop tongue from moving

(side effect of neuroleptics)
Behavioral treatments
- Behavioral therapy
- Cognitive therapies
- Psychotherapy
Factors traumatic brain injury
- age (kids/elderly)
- sex (M 15-30)
Behavioral results from brain injury
1. discrete: loss of funct mediate by cortex @ coup
2. general: impair widspread trauma
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
identify changes in specific markers of neuronal functioning
cognitive recovery time (injury)
6-9 mo
ischemia
lack of blood to brain due to stroke
effects of stroke
1. Δ ionic balance & pH of memb
2. release glutamate...open Ca
3. 2ndary mess
4. tissue inflammed & swollen
5. neural shock - diaschisis
diaschisis
temporary arrest of function
treatments for stroke
- restore blood flow
- tissue plasminogen activator (clot-busting)
- neuroprotectants (try block poststroke events)
symptomatic seizure
specific cause
idiopathic seizure
spontaneous
syptoms of seizure
1. aura
2. loss of consciousness
3. motor component
focal seizures
start @ focus...spread out

- Jacksonian focal seizures
- complex partial seizures
Jacksonian focal seizures
start from focus in neocortex representing region
complex partial seizures
start in temporal lobe

I. subjective experience
II. automatisms
III. catatonic
generalized seizures
No focal onset

- grand mal seizure ("big bad")
- petit mal seizure ("little bad")
grand mal ("big bad")
stages:

1. tonic stage
2. clonic stage(rhythmic shaking)
3. postseizure postictal depression
petit mal ("little bad")
brief, only extra movement blink, turn head, roll eyes
treatment of seizures
- anticonvulsant
- stabalize neuronal membrane
Multiple sclerosis
damaged myelin & connected axons

- lesions around lateral ven
- common in W
autoimmune disease
antibodies for own body
horror autotoxia
immune sys. attack itself
neurodegenerative disorders
1. dementia
2. Alzheimer's
3. Parkinson's
dementia
intellectual impairment

- nondegenerative (diverse causes:PTS, drug)
- degenerative (degree genetic:Alz & Park)
Parkinson's disease
degen. of substantia nigra & low DA
Parkinson's disease
(+ symptoms)
1. tremor
2. rigidity
3. involuntary move.
(akathesia "cruel restlessness" sml invol. move)
Parkinson's disease
(- symptoms)
1. Disorder of posture
2. righting
3. locomotion
4. Disturbed speech
5. Akinesia: slow move, blank
treatment of Park
- ↑ act. DA synap
- ↓ act. structs. that ↑ act in absence of DA
- surgical: ↓ act of globus pallidis (ex DBS)
Lewy body
form in cytoplasm from abnorm neurofilament metabolism


- linked to Park & neurodegen
Diagnosing Schizophrenia
1. distort reality
2. hallucination
3. disorg. speech
4. disorg. behav
5. catatonic
6. (-) symptoms
classifying schizo
- Type I: (+)
(dopaminergic dysfunct. good prognosis & response Rx)

- Type II (-)
(poor prognosis & response Rx)
neuroanatomical correlates of schizo
hippo neurons haphazard organization

- temp lobe, Broca's, Wernicke's, etc
neurobio of depression
antidepres. ↑ NE & 5HT
anxiety disorders
- stressful early development

Treatment: SSRIs, CBT (cog-behav therapy)
HPA axis
(hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system)
production/release of hormones related to stress

- abnorm : oversecretion cortisol
- treat w/SSRIs
HPA axis pathway
- hypo secrete corticotrophin releasing hormone
- pituitary → ACTH
- adrenal medulla → cortisol