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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When the K+ moves across the heart, what does it drop down into?
Transverse tubules
does the voltage change when the K+ moves into the T-tubules? explain
yes from -70mV to -50mV
when the k+ moves down the t-tubules and voltage changes to -50mV, what is released?
Is Ca++ release the same way as K+ in the artia?
what triggers the contraction of the heart?
Does the contraction happen in a particular way? explain
yes,it contracts downward because we want the ventrcial to contract upward
what is the difference between Ca++ gates in cardic muscle Vs. skeletal muscle cells? Explain
Ca++ gates in cardic are slower allowing more Ca++ to close.
Which muscle cell (Cardic or skeletal) is able to release more Ca++?
what is the major reason that Ca++ gates are slow to close?
the more Ca++ released the harder the contraction.
Which muscle has a greater force of contraction?
What cause the ca++ to have a greater contraction? Explain
the more Ca++ released, the more actin and myosin that can bind.
What are the speclized cells that the K+ moves down through?
Bundle of hess or bundle branches
What is the reason for ventrical diastole?
when the K+ moves down through the bundles of hess no contraction can occure.
When does the K+ move up through the ventricular muscle?
when the K+ gets to the Apex of the heart.
what follows the K+ moving up through the ventricular muscle? Why?
Ca++ to trigger the contraction.
when the ventrcals can not contract, what is this called?
A bundle branch block.
what keeps the 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in on the SA nodes?
Na+ K+ pump
what is the major diffrence between the SA node cell Vs. and other cell? explain
there is a force field around the cell, not allowing K+ to defuss out
what is impermiable in the SA node?
What is decresed in the SA node?
K+ permiablity
what happens to the voltage in the SA node when the Na+ dufusses in and the K+ is impermiable?
The voltage goes up to -50mV to trigger action potentals.
when does the K+ start to flow in the SA node?
after the action potental
when their is a decrease in K+ permiability, what does this cause?
a heart beat
what turns of K+ from being defussed out in the heart?
SA nodes cells
At what rate is the K+ defused out? why?
72 times per minute
because that is how often a heart beats per minute
How is a heart beat triggered?
by K+ permibility
what is the heart rate of men and women in their 40's?
men 72

women 82
what is the trigger herat rate for GAS?
92 beats per/min
how do you increase heart rate?
Block K+ (decrease K+ permibility) from leaving the cells more times then 72 times per/min
how do you decreade heart rate?
increase K+ permibility
What is the AV node for? what is it rate?
It is a back up system

52 beats per/min
what happends when the SA node goes bad?
you have to get a pacemaker.
what is a negative for the AV node to take over?
it starts in the wrong place, now the atria can't contract. this can cause death
When do people usually find out that their SA node is bad?
when they are sleeping
what is the SA node naturally called?
The pacemaker
what does a pacemaker do?
it sends a electrical charge to change voltage to trigger an action potential.
Is there communication between the SA node and the AV node?
how do you increase the rate at which the SA node beats at?
their are receptors for EPI and Nor Epi on the SA node cells
what happens when Epi and Nor Epi bind to the receptors on the SA node?
it will decrease K+ permibility more times per/min causing, a faster heart rate.
what controls the SA nodes cells?
the symthethic nerve system and the adrenal medulla
what if you what your heart rate to go down?
their are receptors for acytocholine, inturn causing the heart rate to decrease
whare is acytocholine released from?
the parasympatic nerve system
what does acytocholine do in the heart?
it lowers the heart rate by increasing K+ permability
What is the name of the receptor for acytocholine?
Alpha receptors
What is the name of the receptor for EPI and Nor Epi?
Beta receptors
what is the responce of the heart if you give a person a beta blocker?
the heart rate would decrease
what is the correrlation between heart rate and blood pressure?
If heart rate goes up blood pressure goes up
what maintains the health of the Alpha and Beta receptors on the SA nodes?
by thyroid hormones
what happens if your thyroid hormones go down?
you can loose receptors on the heart. especially beta receptors
When you look at a EKG what do you see?
the changes in voltage
On the EKG what is the rise on the P wave?
atrial depolarzation. the movement of K+ from the right to left side of heart
what does Q repersent?
the wave down the bundle of hess.
what is the Q R S complex representing?
Ventricular depolarzation.
What is the lowering of the P wave?
The K+ going down the atria
what happens after the P wave?
a contraction thre the valve will snap shut.
what does the R represent?
the movement through the purkinge fibers. up and out
what does the S represent?
the contractions of the papuary muscles.
How often do you have an S on an EKG?
what does the T wave repersent?
ventricular repolarzation
do we have a atrail repolarization? Why
no, it under the Q R S complex
what are PVC?
preventricular contractions
1. explain the contractile proceses of cardic muscle. Then explain the changes
essay part 1
2. Begin with the pacemaker cells, and how the ions flow through the muscle to cause contraction.
essay part 2
3. that must occur do to the sym and para sym. nerver system
essay part 3
what are the ventricular cells called?
purkinje cells