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25 Cards in this Set

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Parenchymal Junction Defect
Developmental
Occurs at the fusion of the uteric bud and metanephrogenic blastema
Function not affected
Hypertrophied Column of Bertin
Two subkidney create one permanent kidney
Pyramids fuse and appear as a mass
Show presence of arcuate arteries
Hypertrophied Column of Bertin (two criteria)
Lateral indentation of renal sinus
Boarded by a junctional line defect
Renal Duplication Artifact
Artifact in obese-usually on left side
Looks like duplicated ureters, upper pole cortical thickening, suprarenal mass
Bladder Diverticulum (common in..)
Common in men
Usually goes unnoticed
Renal Hypoplasia
Rare, decreased nephrons
Ureteral bud contacts the caudal portion of the metaphrongenic blastema
Small, normal appearing kidney
Fetal Lobulation
Infolding of cortex without parenchyma loss
(clefts overlying the septa of Bertin)
birth to age 4-5
51% adults-persistent lobulation
Compensatory Hypertrophy
Enlargement of nephrons
Normal parenchyma works harder
Compensatory Hypertrophy (focal)
Islands of normal tissue in a diseased kidney.
Compensatory Hypertrophy (diffuse)
Enlarged but otherwise normal kidney
Assoc. w/: nephrectomy, renal agenesis, hypoplasia, atrophy, dysplasia
Ectopic Kidney (pelvic)
Kidney is too low
Small, abnormally rotated, small ureteres w/ blood supply from iliacs
50% decreased function
Infection, stones
Ectopic Kidney (thoracic)
Kidney is too high
May pass through the foramen of Bochdalek
Normal functioning
Check for incomplete diaphragm
Crossed Renal Ectopia
Both kidneys on the same side
Happens embryonically
85-90% ectopic kidney is fused to the other
Where does fusion in a crossed renal ectopia usually occur?
Ectopic kidney-upper pole fuses to the
Normal kidney-lower pole
Horseshoe Kidney
.01-.25% population
95% fuse at lower poles during metanephraogenic blastema
Connection-functioning renal tissue
IMV usually stops kidney ascent
Horseshoe Kidney is assoc. with:
UPJ obstruction
Vesicoureteral reflux
Collecting system duplication
Renaly Dysplasia
Suprenumeray Kidney
Anorectal Malformation
Rectrovaginal Fistula
Ureteral Bud (assoc. with)
Renal agenesis
Supernumeray Kidney
Duplex collecting system
Ureterocele
UPJ
Congenital megacalyces
Congenital megaureter
Renal Agenesis (unilateral-3 possibilities)
Absent or rudimentary kidney w/ hypertrophy
1) absence of metaphrogenic blastema
2) absence of ureteral bud
3) absence of metaphrogenic and ureteral bud fusion
Renal Agenesis (unilater-assoc. w/)
Skeletal anomalies
Anorectal malformations
Cryptorschism
Absent adrenal gland (8-17%)
Renal Agenesis (bilateral)
Rare
Incompatible w/ life
.04% autopsies
3:1 men
Supranumeray Kidneys
Very rare
Extra kidney (usually rudimentary) develops when two ureteric buds reach the metaphrogenic blastema then divide
Duplex Collecting System
Most common congenital anomaly in urinary tract
.5-10% live births
Causes UPJ and uterus didephys
Duplex Collecting System (complete)
2 complete collecting systems, ureteral orifices, and ureters
Double ureters-ureter draining the upper pole always inserts in an ectopic location in the bladder
Duplex Collecting System (Complete-complications)
Ureter from the lower pole of the kidney migrates to its normal position
The ureter draining the superior pole doesn't migrate normally and courses medial and inferior
Ureteroceles
Common w/ ectopic ureter
Prolapse of the distal ureter into the bladder with cystic dilation
Can extend to the kidney and cause dilation of the upper collecting system