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Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar (100—44 B.C.E.) The Roman general who conquered the Gauls, invaded Britain, and expanded Rome’s territory in Asia Minor. He became the dictator of Rome in 46 B.C.E. and was murdered by Brutus and Cassius, which led to the rise of Augustus and the end of the Roman republic.
caliphs
caliphs Rulers of the Islamic community who claimed descent from Muhammad.
John Calvin
John Calvin (1509—1564) French-born Protestant theologian who stressed the predestination of all human beings according to God’s will.
Canary Islands
Canary Islands Islands off the western coast of Africa conquered by Portugal and Spain in the mid-1400s. Used to supply expeditions around the African coast and across the Atlantic.
Canterbury Tales
Canterbury Tales Middle English verse stories by Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1340—1400) that reflect different classes and experiences in late medieval England.
caravans
caravans Companies of men who transported and traded goods along overland routes in North Africa and central Asia1 large caravans consisted of 600 to 1,000 camels and as many as 400 men.
caravel
caravel Sailing vessel suited for nosing in and out of estuaries and navigating in waters with unpredictable currents and winds.
Carthage
Carthage A great maritime empire that rivaled Rome1 at its height, it stretched across the northern coast of Africa from modern-day Tunisia to the Strait of Gibraltar. Carthage fought against Rome in the Punic Wars that began in 264 B.C.E. The wars ended with the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C.E.
Cassiodorus
Cassiodorus (490—58 3) Author of the Institutes, which instructed medieval readers on the essential works of literature a monk should know before moving on to more intensive study of theology and the Bible.
caste system
caste system A hierarchical system of organizing people and distributing labor, often based on heredity or regional origin.
Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione (1478—1 529) Author of The Book of the Courtier, a popular treatise on upper-class social graces.
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great (1729—1796) German-born empress of Russia who maintained an absolutist feudal system but encouraged
Catholicism
Catholicism Branch of Christianity headed by the pope.
Camillo Benso di Cavour
Camillo Benso di Cavour (1 810—1 861) Anti-papist Italian leader who led the initial stages of revolution against the Habsburgs.
Central Powers
Central Powers The World War I alliance between Germany, Austro -Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
Charlemagne
Charlemagne (742—814) Frankish ruler 767—813 who consolidated much of western Europe by adding Lombardy and Saxony to the Frankish kingdoms. With a strong sense of divine purpose, he forced the Christian conversion of pagan peoples and sponsored arts and learning at court. In 800 he became the first Roman emperor in the west since the 5th century.
Chartism
Chartism (1834—1848) Mass democratic movement to pass the Peoples’ Charter in Britain, granting male suffrage, secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and annual Parliaments, and absolving the requirement of property ownership for members of Parliament.
Chernobyl
Chernobyl (1986) Site of the world’s worst nuclear power accident 1 in Ukraine, formerly part of the Soviet Union.
chivalry
chivalry From the word for “horsemanship”, an aristocratic ideology originating with the knights of eleventh-century Europe that encouraged military prowess and social graces.
Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill (1874—1965) The British prime minister who led the country during World War II. He also coined the phrase “Iron Curtain” in a speech at Westminster College in 1946.
Church of England
Church of England Founded by Henry VIII in the I 530s after his excommunication from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII, it is the established form of Christianity in England.
Cicero
Cicero (106—43 B.C.E.) The most famous Stoic philosopher and orator of Rome.
Civil Rights Act
Civil Rights Act (1964) U.S. legislation that banned segregation in public facilities, outlawed racial discrimination in employment, and marked an important step in correcting legal inequality.
civil war
Civil War (1861—1865) Conflict between thc northern and southern states of America that cost over 600,000 lives, this struggle led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.
Cluny
Cluny A Benedictine monastery, founded in 910, whose reform ideology tried to separate its network of religious houses from control by lay people.
Cold War
Cold War (1945—1990) Ideological conflict in which theWestern Europe.
collectivization
collectivization The process under Stalin in the 1920s and 1930s where peasants were forced to give up private farmland and join collective farms, which were supported by the state.
colons
Colons French settler population in Algeria that ran the colonial government between 1830 and 1962.
Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety Political body during the French Revolution that was controlled by the .Jacobins, who enforced party rule by executing thousands during the Reign of Terror, September 1793—July 1794.
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto (18 18—1883) Radical pamphlet by Karl Marx that predicted the downfall of the capitalist system and its replacement by a system that operated in the interests of the working class (proletariat).
Compromise of 1867
Compromise of 1867 Agreement between the Habsburgs and the peoples living in Hungarian parts of the empire that the Habsburg state would be officially known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
concession area
concession areas Territories, usually ports, established by the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing, where Chinese emperors allowed European merchants to trade and European people to settle.
Congo Independent State
Congo Independent State Large colonial state in Africa created by Leopold II, king of Belgium, during the I 880s, and ruled by him alone. After reports of mass slaughter and enslavement, the Belgian parliament took the land and formed a Belgian colony.
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna (1 814—1 8 15) International conference to reorganize Europe after the downfall of Napoleon. European monarchies agreed to respect each other’s borders and to cooperate in guarding against future revolutions and war.
Conquistador Spanish
Conquistador Spanish term for “conqueror,” applied to European leaders of campaigns against indigenous peoples in central and southern America.
conservativism
Conservativism Reactionary mode of thinking that held that tradition, including hereditary monarchy, would dispel the divisive ideas of the Enlightenment
Constantinople
Constantinople Former capital of the Byzantine Empire, eventually renamed Istanbul after its conquest by the Ottomans in 1453.
Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention (1787) Meeting to formulate the Constitution of the United States of America.
Corn Laws
Corn Laws Laws that imposed tariffs on grain imported to Great Britain, intended to protect British farming interests. The CornLaws were abolished in 1846 as part of a British movement in favorite of free trade
Nicholas Copernicus
Nicholas Copernicus (1473—1543) Polish astronomer who advanced the radical idea that the earth moved around the sun in De Revolutionibus.
Council of Trent
Council of Trent Intermittent meeting of Catholic leaders (1545—1563) that reaffirmed Catholic doctrine against Protestant criticisms while also reforming the church
Counter Reformation Movement
Counter Reformation Movement To counter the spread of the Reformation, the Counter Reformation was initiated by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545.
coup d’etat
Coup d’etat Overthrow of established state by a group of conspirators, usually from the military.
courtly love
Courtly love Codes of refined romantic behavior between men and women of high station.
courfly romances
courtly romances long narrative poems written in vernacular languages based on myths and legends but expressing ideals of medieval aristocratic conduct.
creoles
creoles Persons of European descent who were born in the West Indies or Spanish America.
Crimean War
Crimean War (1854—1856) War waged by Russia against Great Britain and France. Spurred by Russia’s encroachment on Ottomanterritories, the conflict revealed Russia's military weakness when Russian forces fell to British and French troops.
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell (1599—1658) Puritan leader of the Parliamentary army that defeated the royalist forces in the English Civil War. After the 1649 execution of King Charles I and dispersion of Parliament. Cromwell ruled as self-styled Lord Protector from 1653 until his death.
Crusades
Crusades (1096 to 1291) Series of wars undertaken to free Jerusalem and the Holy Lands from Muslim control.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Diplomatic standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union that was provoked by the Soviet Unions attempt to base nuclear missiles in Cuba, it brought the world closer to nuclear war than ever before or since.
Cult of the Virgin Mary
Cult of the Virgin Mary A surge in veneration of the mother of Jesus beginning in the twelfth century that seemed to portend a change in how women were regarded as religious and moral beings.
“Cult of domesticity
“Cult of domesticity” Concept associated with Victorian England that idealized women as nurturing wives and mothers.
cuneiform
cuneiform One of the earliest writing systems, beginning around 3500 B.C.E.. it was the Mesopotamian form of writing on clay tablets using a stylus.
Cyrus
Cyrus (c.585—529 B.C.E.) The ruler of the Persians from circa 559 B.C.E. until 529 B.C.E.
Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) British naturalist who wrote Origin of the Species and developed the theory of natural selection to explain the evolution of organisms.
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci (1452—1519) Florentine painter, architect, musician, and inventor whose breadth of interests typifies Renaissance ideals.
David
David King of the Hebrews from around 1000 B.C.E. to 973 B.C.E. David united Israel and made Jerusalem his capital.
D-Day
D-Day (June 6, 1944) Date of the Allied invasion of Normandy under General Dwight Eisenhower to liberate Western Europe from German occupation.
Decembrists
Decembrists Russian army officers who were influenced by events in France and formed secret societies that espoused liberal governance. They were put down by Nicholas I in December 1825.
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence Historic U.S. document stating the principleof government on which America was founded.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) French charter of liberties formulated by the National Assembly that marked the end of dynastic and aristocratic rule. The seventeen articles later became the preamble to the new constitution, which the Assembly finished in 1791.
Olympe de Gouges
Olympe de Gouges (1745—1 793) French political radical and feminist whose Declaration of the Rights of Women demanded an equal place For women in the new French republic.
Dhimmis
Dhimmis “Peoples of the Book”, i.e., Jews and Christians, who were given a protected but subordinate place in Muslim society.
Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens (1812—1870) Hugely popular English novelist whose fiction exposed urban crime, poverty, and injustice but maintained Victorian domestic ideals,
Dien Bien Phu
Dien Bien Phu (1954) Defining battle in the war between French colonialists and the Viet Minh that secured North Vietnam for Ho Chi Minh and his army and left the south to form its own government to be supported by France and the United States.
The Diet of Worms
The Diet of Worms Examination of Luther by a church council in 1521. The council condemned him, and Luther was rescued by Frederick of Saxony.
Directory
Directory Temporary military committee that took over the affairs of the state of France in 1795 from the radicals and held control until the coup of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Discourse on Method
Discourse on Method Philosophical treatise by René Descartes (1596—1650) proposing that the path to knowledge was through logical speculation, beginning with one’s own self: “1 think, therefore I am.”
DNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953, DNA contains an organism’s genetic information and hereditary characteristics.
Dominion in the British Commonwealth
Dominion in the British Commonwealth Canadian promise to keep up their fealty to the British crown, even after their independence in 1867. Later applied to Australia and New Zealand.
Divine Comedy
Italian verse narrative by Dante Alighieri (1265—132 1), its complex themes exemplify the concerns of medieval learning.
Drefus Affair
Drefus Affair The 1894 French scandal surrounding accusations that a Jewish captain, Alfred Dreyfus, sold military secrets to the Germans. Convicted, Dreyfus was sentenced to life in prison. However, after public outcry, it was revealed that the trial documents were forgeries and Dreyfus was released.
Ii Duce
Il Duce Term designating the fascist Italian leader Benito Mussolini.
Duma
Duma The Russian parliament.
Dunkirk
Dunkirk The French port on the English Channel where the British and French forces retreated after sustaining heavy losses against the German military. Between May 27 and June 4, 1940, the Royal Navy evacuated over three hundred thousand troops using commercial and pleasure boats.
Earth Summit
Earth Summit (1992) Meeting in Rio deJaneiro between many of the world’s governments in an effort to address international environmental problems.
East India Company
East India Company (1600—1858) British charter company created to outperform Portuguese and Spanish traders in the Far East; in the eighteenth century the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India. There was also a Dutch East India Company.
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes (1598) Edict issued by Henry IV to end the French Wars of Religion. The edict declared France a Catholic country, but tolerated some Protestant worship.
Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower Named after its creator, Gustave Eiffel, the tower was completed in 1889 for the Paris Exposition. This steel monument was twice the height of any other building at the time.
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein (1879—1955) German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that space and motion are relative to each other instead of being absolute.
Elizabeth 1
Elizabeth 1 (1533—1603) Protestant daughter of Henry VIII, Queen of England 1558—1603. During her long reign, the doctrines and services of the Church of England were defined and the Spanish Armada was defeated.
Enabling Act
Enabling Act (1933) Emergency act passed by the Reichstag (German parliament) that helped transform Hitler from Germany’s chancellor, or prime minister, into a dictator, following the suspicious burning of the Reichstag building and a suspension of civil liberties.
Enclosure
Enclosure Long process of privatizing what had been public agricultural land in the eighteenth century that changed the nature of economic activity in England.
The Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia Joint venture of French philosophe writers, helmed by Denis Diderot (1713—1784), which proposed to summarize all modern knowledge.
Endeavor
Endeavor Ship of Captain James Cook, whose widely celebrated voyages to the South Pacific at the end of the eighteenth century supplied Europe with information about the plants, birds, landscapes, and people of this uncharted territory.
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels (1820—1895) German social and political philosopher who collaborated with Karl Marx on many publications.
English Navigation Act of 1651
English Navigation Act of 1651 Act stipulating that only English ships could carry goods between the mother country and its colonies.
Enlightenment
Enlightenment Intellectual movement stressing natural laws andclassifications in nature, in eighteenth-century Europe.
Epicureanism
Epicureanism Greek philosophy that emphasized the individual, denied the existence of spiritual forces, and proposed that the highest good is pleasure.
Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469—153 6) Dutch-born scholar and social commentator who proclaimed his humanist views in lively treatises like In Praise of Folly and the Colloquies.
Estates-General
Estates-General French quasi-parliamentary body called in 1789to deal with the financial problems that afflicted France at the time
Etruscans
Etruscans Non-Indo-European-speaking settlers of the Italian peninsula who dominated the region from the late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in the sixth century B.C.E.
Euclid
Euclid Hellenistic mathematician whose book Elements of Geometry was the basis of modern geometry.
Eugenics Term,
Eugenics Term, meaning “good birth,” referring to the project of “breeding” a superior human race. It was popularly championed by scientists, politicians, and social critics in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
European Union
European Union (EU) An international political body that was organized after World War II to reconcile Germany and the rest of Europe as well as to forge closer industrial cooperation. Over time member states of the EU have relinquished some of their sovereignty, and cooperation has evolved into a community with a single currency, the Euro, and a common European parliament.
Exclusion Act of 1882
Exclusion Act of 1882 U.S. congressional act prohibiting nearly all immigration from China to the United States; fueled by animosity toward Chinese workers in the American West.
Existentialism
Existentialism The philosophy that arose out of World War C and emphasized the human condition. Led by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, existentialists encouraged humans to take responsibility for their own decisions and dilemmas.
Eurasia
Eurasia The combined area of Europe and Asia.
February Revolution
February Revolution (191 7) The first of two uprisings of the Russian Revolution, which led to the end of the Romanov dynasty.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Created in1933 to guarantee all bank deposits up to $2,000 as part of the New Deal in the U.S
Fascists
Fascists Radical right-wing group of the disaffected that formed around Mussolini in 1919 and a few years later came to power in Italy.
Federalists
Federalists Supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Contrition, which was written to replace the Articles of Confederation.
Federal Republic of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany (1949—1990) Country Formed the areas occupied by the Allies after World War II. Also known as West Germany, this country experienced rapid demilitarization
democratization, and integration into the world economy.
None
Federal Reserve Act
Eastern Front Battlefront between Berlin and Moscow during World War I and World War II.
Duma
Duma The Russian parliament.
Dunkirk
Dunkirk The French port on the English Channel where the British and French forces retreated after sustaining heavy losses against the German military. Between May 27 and June 4, 1940, the Royal Navy evacuated over three hundred thousand troops using commercial and pleasure boats.
Earth Summit
Earth Summit (1992) Meeting in Rio deJaneiro between many of the world’s governments in an effort to address international environmental problems.
East India Company
East India Company (1600—1858) British charter company created to outperform Portuguese and Spanish traders in the Far East; in the eighteenth century the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India. There was also a Dutch East India Company.
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes (1598) Edict issued by Henry IV to end the French Wars of Religion. The edict declared France a Catholic country, but tolerated some Protestant worship.
Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower Named after its creator, Gustave Eiffel, the tower was completed in 1889 for the Paris Exposition. This steel monument was twice the height of any other building at the time.
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein (1879—1955) German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that space and motion are relative to each other instead of being absolute.
Elizabeth 1
Elizabeth 1 (1533—1603) Protestant daughter of Henry VIII, Queen of England 1558—1603. During her long reign, the doctrines and services of the Church of England were defined and the Spanish Armada was defeated.
Enabling Act
Enabling Act (1933) Emergency act passed by the Reichstag (German parliament) that helped transform Hitler from Germany’s chancellor, or prime minister, into a dictator, following the suspicious burning of the Reichstag building and a suspension of civil liberties.
Enclosure
Enclosure Long process of privatizing what had been public agricultural land in the eighteenth century that changed the nature of economic activity in England.
The Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia Joint venture of French philosophe writers, helmed by Denis Diderot (1713—1784), which proposed to summarize all modern knowledge.
Endeavor
Endeavor Ship of Captain James Cook, whose widely celebrated voyages to the South Pacific at the end of the eighteenth century supplied Europe with information about the plants, birds, landscapes, and people of this uncharted territory.
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels (1820—1895) German social and political philosopher who collaborated with Karl Marx on many publications.
English Navigation Act of 1651
English Navigation Act of 1651 Act stipulating that only English ships could carry goods between the mother country and its colonies.
Enlightenment
Enlightenment Intellectual movement stressing natural laws andclassifications in nature, in eighteenth-century Europe.
Epicureanism
Epicureanism Greek philosophy that emphasized the individual, denied the existence of spiritual forces, and proposed that the highest good is pleasure.
Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469—153 6) Dutch-born scholar and social commentator who proclaimed his humanist views in lively treatises like In Praise of Folly and the Colloquies.
Estates-General
Estates-General French quasi-parliamentary body called in 1789to deal with the financial problems that afflicted France at the time
Etruscans
Etruscans Non-Indo-European-speaking settlers of the Italian peninsula who dominated the region from the late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in the sixth century B.C.E.
Euclid
Euclid Hellenistic mathematician whose book Elements of Geometry was the basis of modern geometry.
Eugenics Term,
Eugenics Term, meaning “good birth,” referring to the project of “breeding” a superior human race. It was popularly championed by scientists, politicians, and social critics in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
European Union
European Union (EU) An international political body that was organized after World War II to reconcile Germany and the rest of Europe as well as to forge closer industrial cooperation. Over time member states of the EU have relinquished some of their sovereignty, and cooperation has evolved into a community with a single currency, the Euro, and a common European parliament.
Exclusion Act of 1882
Exclusion Act of 1882 U.S. congressional act prohibiting nearly all immigration from China to the United States; fueled by animosity toward Chinese workers in the American West.
Existentialism
Existentialism The philosophy that arose out of World War C and emphasized the human condition. Led by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, existentialists encouraged humans to take responsibility for their own decisions and dilemmas.
Eurasia
Eurasia The combined area of Europe and Asia.
February Revolution
February Revolution (191 7) The first of two uprisings of the Russian Revolution, which led to the end of the Romanov dynasty.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Created in1933 to guarantee all bank deposits up to $2,000 as part of the New Deal in the U.S
Fascists
Fascists Radical right-wing group of the disaffected that formed around Mussolini in 1919 and a few years later came to power in Italy.
Federalists
Federalists Supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Contrition, which was written to replace the Articles of Confederation.
Federal Reserve Act
Eastern Front Battlefront between Berlin and Moscow during World War I and World War II.
D’ri Quixote
D’ri Quixote Comical adventure by Spanish writer Miguel deantes (1547—1616) that mocks chivalric ideas.
Drefus Affair
Drefus Affair The 1894 French scandal surrounding accusations that a Jewish captain, Alfred Dreyfus, sold military secrets to the Germans. Convicted, Dreyfus was sentenced to life in prison. However, after public outcry, it was revealed that the trial documents were forgeries and Dreyfus was released.
Ii Duce
Il Duce Term designating the fascist Italian leader Benito Mussolini.
Duma
Duma The Russian parliament.
Dunkirk
Dunkirk The French port on the English Channel where the British and French forces retreated after sustaining heavy losses against the German military. Between May 27 and June 4, 1940, the Royal Navy evacuated over three hundred thousand troops using commercial and pleasure boats.
Earth Summit
Earth Summit (1992) Meeting in Rio deJaneiro between many of the world’s governments in an effort to address international environmental problems.
East India Company
East India Company (1600—1858) British charter company created to outperform Portuguese and Spanish traders in the Far East; in the eighteenth century the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India. There was also a Dutch East India Company.
Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes (1598) Edict issued by Henry IV to end the French Wars of Religion. The edict declared France a Catholic country, but tolerated some Protestant worship.
Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower Named after its creator, Gustave Eiffel, the tower was completed in 1889 for the Paris Exposition. This steel monument was twice the height of any other building at the time.
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein (1879—1955) German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that space and motion are relative to each other instead of being absolute.
Elizabeth 1
Elizabeth 1 (1533—1603) Protestant daughter of Henry VIII, Queen of England 1558—1603. During her long reign, the doctrines and services of the Church of England were defined and the Spanish Armada was defeated.
Enabling Act
Enabling Act (1933) Emergency act passed by the Reichstag (German parliament) that helped transform Hitler from Germany’s chancellor, or prime minister, into a dictator, following the suspicious burning of the Reichstag building and a suspension of civil liberties.
Enclosure
Enclosure Long process of privatizing what had been public agricultural land in the eighteenth century that changed the nature of economic activity in England.
The Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia Joint venture of French philosophe writers, helmed by Denis Diderot (1713—1784), which proposed to summarize all modern knowledge.
Endeavor
Endeavor Ship of Captain James Cook, whose widely celebrated voyages to the South Pacific at the end of the eighteenth century supplied Europe with information about the plants, birds, landscapes, and people of this uncharted territory.
Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels (1820—1895) German social and political philosopher who collaborated with Karl Marx on many publications.
English Navigation Act of 1651
English Navigation Act of 1651 Act stipulating that only English ships could carry goods between the mother country and its colonies.
Enlightenment
Enlightenment Intellectual movement stressing natural laws andclassifications in nature, in eighteenth-century Europe.
Epicureanism
Epicureanism Greek philosophy that emphasized the individual, denied the existence of spiritual forces, and proposed that the highest good is pleasure.
Desiderius Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus (c. 1469—153 6) Dutch-born scholar and social commentator who proclaimed his humanist views in lively treatises like In Praise of Folly and the Colloquies.
Estates-General
Estates-General French quasi-parliamentary body called in 1789to deal with the financial problems that afflicted France at the time
Etruscans
Etruscans Non-Indo-European-speaking settlers of the Italian peninsula who dominated the region from the late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in the sixth century B.C.E.
Euclid
Euclid Hellenistic mathematician whose book Elements of Geometry was the basis of modern geometry.
Eugenics Term,
Eugenics Term, meaning “good birth,” referring to the project of “breeding” a superior human race. It was popularly championed by scientists, politicians, and social critics in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
European Union
European Union (EU) An international political body that was organized after World War II to reconcile Germany and the rest of Europe as well as to forge closer industrial cooperation. Over time member states of the EU have relinquished some of their sovereignty, and cooperation has evolved into a community with a single currency, the Euro, and a common European parliament.
Exclusion Act of 1882
Exclusion Act of 1882 U.S. congressional act prohibiting nearly all immigration from China to the United States; fueled by animosity toward Chinese workers in the American West.
Existentialism
Existentialism The philosophy that arose out of World War C and emphasized the human condition. Led by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, existentialists encouraged humans to take responsibility for their own decisions and dilemmas.
Eurasia
Eurasia The combined area of Europe and Asia.
February Revolution
February Revolution (191 7) The first of two uprisings of the Russian Revolution, which led to the end of the Romanov dynasty.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Created in1933 to guarantee all bank deposits up to $2,000 as part of the New Deal in the U.S
Fascists
Fascists Radical right-wing group of the disaffected that formed around Mussolini in 1919 and a few years later came to power in Italy.
Federalists
Federalists Supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Contrition, which was written to replace the Articles of Confederation.
Federal Reserve Act
Eastern Front Battlefront between Berlin and Moscow during World War I and World War II.
Feminine Mystique
minine Mystique Groundbreaking book by feminist Betty Friedan (b. 1921), which tried to define “femininity” and explored how women internalized those definitions.
Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent An area of fertile land in what is now Syria, Israel, Turkey, eastern Iraq, and western Iran that was able to sustain settlements due to its wetter climate and abundant natural food resources. Some of the earliest known civilizations emerged there between 9000 and 4500 B.C.E.
feudalism
feudalism A loose term reflecting the political and economic situation in eleventh- and twelfth-century Europe. In this system, lords were owed agricultural labor and military service by their serfs, and in turn owed allegiance to more powerful lords and kings.
First Crusade
First Crusade (1095—1099) Forces were sent by Pope Urban II to assist Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in fighting Turkish forces in Anatolia. The struggle to recapture Jerusalem for western Christianity was eventually successful. This crusade prompted attacks against Jews throughout Europe and resulted in six subsequent military campaigns to the Holy Land.
First World War
First World War A total war from August 1914 to November 1918, involving the armies of Britain, France, and Russia (the Allies) against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire (the Central Powers). Italy joined the Allies in 1915, and the United States joined them in 1917, helping to tip the balance in favor of the Allies, who also drew upon the populations and material of their colonial possessions. Also known as the Great War.
Five-Year Plan
Five-Year Plan Soviet effort launched under Stalin in 1928 to replace the market with a state-owned and state-managed economy in order to promote rapid economic development over a five-year period and thereby “catch and overtake” the leading capitalist
Flagellants
cour,tries. The First Five-Year Plan was followed by the Second Five-Year Plan (1933—1937), and so on, until the collapse of theSoviet Union in 1991.
Franciscan order
Flagellants European social group that came into existence during the bubonic plague in the fourteenth century,. they believed that the plague was caused by the wrath of God and chose to beat and mutilate themselves as a form of religious penance.
Francis of Assisi
Franciscan order Order of monks established in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi (1182—1 226), its members strove to imitate the life and example of Jesus.
Frankfurt Assembly
Frankfurt Assembly An 1848 gathering of delegates from all German states that attempted to unify them into one nation. The liberal agenda and squabbling over whose plan for the nation was best led to the failure of the gathering.
Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand (1863—1914) Archduke of Austria and heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire1 his assassination led to the beginning of World War I.
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great (1740—1786) Prussian ruler who engaged the nobility in maintaining a strong military and bureaucracy, and led Prussian armies to notable military victories. He also encouraged Enlightenment rationalism and artistic endeavors.
French New Wave
French New Wave A group of filmmakers in the 1950s and I 960s that emphasized naturalistic and unsentimental portrayals of ordinary life. Famous New Wave directors included FrancoisTruffaut (1932—1984), Jean-Luc Godard (b l93O, and Eric Rohmer (b. 1920).
French Revolution
French Revolution of 1848 Brief uprising caused by economic grievances1 it was violently quelled by the government.
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1865—1939) The Austrian physician who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis and suggested that human behavior was largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces.
Front de Liberation Nationale
Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN)/Algerian Revolutionary National Liberation Front An anti-colonial, nationalist party that waged an eight-year war, beginning in 1954, against French troops for Algerian independence, the war forced nearly all of the I million French colonists to leave.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei (1564—1642) Italian physicist and inventor. The implications of his ideas raised the ire of the Catholic Church, and he was forced to retract most of his findings.
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869—1948) The Indian leader who advocated nonviolent noncooperation and helped win home rule for India in 1947.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807—1882) Italian revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from the Habsburg empire, the lands were then peaceably annexed by Sardinia.
garrisons
garrisons Military bases inside cities that were often used for political purposes, such as protecting the rulers and putting down domestic revolt or enforcing colonial rule.
Gaul
Gaul The region of the Roman empire that is modern Belgium, Germany west of the Rhine, and France.
Gdansk shipyard
Gdansk shipyard Site of mass strikes in Poland that led to the formation in 1980 of the first independent trade union, Solidarity, in the Communist bloc.
Geneva Peace Conference
Geneva Peace Conference (1954) International conference to restore peace in Korea and Indochina. The chief participants were the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, the Viet Minh party, Laos, and Cambodia. The conference resulted in the division of North and South Vietnam.
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic Nation founded from the Soviet zone of occupation of Germany after World War II, also known as East Germany.
German Social Democratic Party
German Social Democratic Party Founded in 1875, it was the most powerful Socialist party in Europe before 1917.
Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh The hero of the Sumerian epic, which was recorded in written form around 2000 B.C.E. Gilgamesh was a powerful ruler who, along with his friend Enkidu, battled monsters and gods and searched for immortality.
Girondins
Girondins Liberal revolutionary group that supported the creation of a constitutional monarchy during the early stages of the French Revolution.
globalization
globalization The term used to describe political, social, and economic networks that span the globe. These global exchanges are not limited by nation states and often rely on new technologies, international laws, and economic imperatives.
Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau (18 16—1882) French writer whose pseudoscientific, racist ideology provided a rationale for European imperialism.
Feminine Mystique
minine Mystique Groundbreaking book by feminist Betty Friedan (b. 1921), which tried to define “femininity” and explored how women internalized those definitions.
Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent An area of fertile land in what is now Syria, Israel, Turkey, eastern Iraq, and western Iran that was able to sustain settlements due to its wetter climate and abundant natural food resources. Some of the earliest known civilizations emerged there between 9000 and 4500 B.C.E.
feudalism
feudalism A loose term reflecting the political and economic situation in eleventh- and twelfth-century Europe. In this system, lords were owed agricultural labor and military service by their serfs, and in turn owed allegiance to more powerful lords and kings.
First Crusade
First Crusade (1095—1099) Forces were sent by Pope Urban II to assist Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus in fighting Turkish forces in Anatolia. The struggle to recapture Jerusalem for western Christianity was eventually successful. This crusade prompted attacks against Jews throughout Europe and resulted in six subsequent military campaigns to the Holy Land.
First World War
First World War A total war from August 1914 to November 1918, involving the armies of Britain, France, and Russia (the Allies) against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire (the Central Powers). Italy joined the Allies in 1915, and the United States joined them in 1917, helping to tip the balance in favor of the Allies, who also drew upon the populations and material of their colonial possessions. Also known as the Great War.
Five-Year Plan
Five-Year Plan Soviet effort launched under Stalin in 1928 to replace the market with a state-owned and state-managed economy in order to promote rapid economic development over a five-year period and thereby “catch and overtake” the leading capitalist
Flagellants
cour,tries. The First Five-Year Plan was followed by the Second Five-Year Plan (1933—1937), and so on, until the collapse of theSoviet Union in 1991.
Franciscan order
Flagellants European social group that came into existence during the bubonic plague in the fourteenth century,. they believed that the plague was caused by the wrath of God and chose to beat and mutilate themselves as a form of religious penance.
Francis of Assisi
Franciscan order Order of monks established in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi (1182—1 226), its members strove to imitate the life and example of Jesus.
Frankfurt Assembly
Frankfurt Assembly An 1848 gathering of delegates from all German states that attempted to unify them into one nation. The liberal agenda and squabbling over whose plan for the nation was best led to the failure of the gathering.
Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand (1863—1914) Archduke of Austria and heir to the Austro-Hungarian empire1 his assassination led to the beginning of World War I.
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great (1740—1786) Prussian ruler who engaged the nobility in maintaining a strong military and bureaucracy, and led Prussian armies to notable military victories. He also encouraged Enlightenment rationalism and artistic endeavors.
French New Wave
French New Wave A group of filmmakers in the 1950s and I 960s that emphasized naturalistic and unsentimental portrayals of ordinary life. Famous New Wave directors included FrancoisTruffaut (1932—1984), Jean-Luc Godard (b l93O, and Eric Rohmer (b. 1920).
French Revolution
French Revolution of 1848 Brief uprising caused by economic grievances1 it was violently quelled by the government.
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1865—1939) The Austrian physician who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis and suggested that human behavior was largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces.
Front de Liberation Nationale
Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN)/Algerian Revolutionary National Liberation Front An anti-colonial, nationalist party that waged an eight-year war, beginning in 1954, against French troops for Algerian independence, the war forced nearly all of the I million French colonists to leave.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei (1564—1642) Italian physicist and inventor. The implications of his ideas raised the ire of the Catholic Church, and he was forced to retract most of his findings.
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi
Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869—1948) The Indian leader who advocated nonviolent noncooperation and helped win home rule for India in 1947.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807—1882) Italian revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from the Habsburg empire, the lands were then peaceably annexed by Sardinia.
garrisons
garrisons Military bases inside cities that were often used for political purposes, such as protecting the rulers and putting down domestic revolt or enforcing colonial rule.
Gaul
Gaul The region of the Roman empire that is modern Belgium, Germany west of the Rhine, and France.
Gdansk shipyard
Gdansk shipyard Site of mass strikes in Poland that led to the formation in 1980 of the first independent trade union, Solidarity, in the Communist bloc.
Geneva Peace Conference
Geneva Peace Conference (1954) International conference to restore peace in Korea and Indochina. The chief participants were the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, the Viet Minh party, Laos, and Cambodia. The conference resulted in the division of North and South Vietnam.
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic Nation founded from the Soviet zone of occupation of Germany after World War II, also known as East Germany.
German Social Democratic Party
German Social Democratic Party Founded in 1875, it was the most powerful Socialist party in Europe before 1917.
Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh The hero of the Sumerian epic, which was recorded in written form around 2000 B.C.E. Gilgamesh was a powerful ruler who, along with his friend Enkidu, battled monsters and gods and searched for immortality.
Girondins
Girondins Liberal revolutionary group that supported the creation of a constitutional monarchy during the early stages of the French Revolution.
globalization
globalization The term used to describe political, social, and economic networks that span the globe. These global exchanges are not limited by nation states and often rely on new technologies, international laws, and economic imperatives.
Arthur de Gobineau
Arthur de Gobineau (18 16—1882) French writer whose pseudoscientific, racist ideology provided a rationale for European imperialism.
Gold Coast
Gold Coast Name that European mariners and merchants gave to that part of West Equatorial Africa from which gold and slaves were exported. Originally controlled by the Portuguese, this area later became the British colony of the Gold Coast.
Gothic style
Gothic style Period of graceful architecture emerging after the Romanesque style in twelfth- and thirteenth-century France. The style is characterized by pointed arches, delicate decoration, and large windows.
Great Depression
Great Depression Period following the U.S. stock market crash on October 29, 1929, and ending in 1941 with America’s entry into World War II.
great divide
great divide Refers to the division between economically developed nations and less developed nations.
Great East Asia
Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Term used by the Japanese during the 1930s and 1940s to refer to Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaya, Burma, and other states that they seized during their run for expansion.
The “Great Terror”
The “Great Terror” The systematic murder of nearly a million people and the deportation of another million and a half to labor camps by Stalin’s regime during 1937 in an attempt to consolidate power and remove perceived enemies.
The Great War
The Great War(1914—1918) \X”orldWarl.
Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War (1821—1827) Conflict between Greek Christians and Muslim Ottomans.
Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I (540?—604) Roman Catholic Pope 590—604. Used his political influence and theological teachings to separate the western Latin from the eastern Greek church. He also encouraged the Benedictine monastic movement and missionary expeditions.
Guerillas
Guerillas Portuguese and Spanish peasant bands who resisted the revolutionary and expansion efforts of Napoleon, after the French word for war, guerre.
Guernica
"Guernica The Basque town bombed by German planes in April 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. It is also the subject of Pablo
guest workers
guest workers Migrants looking for temporary employment.
guilds
guilds Professional organizations in commercial towns that regulated the business conditions and privileges of those practicing a particular craft.
gulag
gulag The vast system of forced labor camps under the Soviet regime1 it originated in 1919 in a small monastery near the Arctic Circle and spread throughout the Soviet Union and to other Soviet- style socialist countries. Penal labor was required of both ordinary criminals and those accused of political crimes (counterrevolution, anti-Soviet agitation).
Gulf War
Gulf War (1991) Armed conflict between Iraq and a coalition of thirty-two nations, including the United States, Britain, Egypt, France, and Saudi Arabia. The seeds of the war were planted with Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990.
Habsburg empire
Habsburg empire Ruling house of Austria, which once ruled the Netherlands, Spain, and Central Europe but came to settle in lands along the Danube River. It played a prominent role in European affairs for many centuries. In 1867, the Habsburg empire was reorganize into the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy, and in 1918 it collapsed.
Hadith
Hadith Sayings attributed to the Prophet Muhammad and his early converts. Used to guide the behavior of Muslim peoples.
Hagia
Hagia Sophia The largest house of worship in all of Christendom, located in Constantinople and built by the emperor Justinian. When Constantinople fell to Ottoman forces in 1453, it was turned into a mosque.
hajj
Haff The pilgrimage to Mecca, an obligation for Muslims.
Hammurabi
Hammurabi The ruler of Babylon from 1792 to 1750 B.C.E. Hammurabi issued a collection of laws that were greatly influential in the Near East for centuries.
harem
harem Secluded women’s quarters in Muslim households.
Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance Cultural movement in the 1920s that was based in Harlem, a part of New York City where a large African American population resided. The movement gave voice to black novelists, poets, painters, and musicians, many of whom used their art to protest racial subordination, also referred to as the “New Negro Movement.”
Henry VIII
Henry VIII (1491—1547) Oft-married English monarch who broke with the Roman Catholic church when the pope refused to grant him an annulment. The resulting modified version of Christianity became the Church of England, or Anglicanism.
Henry of Navarre
Henry of Navarre (1553—1610) Crowned King Henry IV of France,he renounced his Protestantism but granted limited toleration to Huguenots (French Protestants) with the 1598 Edict of Nantes.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator (1394—1460) Portuguese noble who encouraged conquest of western Africa and trade in gold and slaves.
hero cult
hero cults Important ancient Greek families would claim that an impressive Mycenean tomb was that of their own famous ancestor and would practice sacrifices and other observances to strengthen their claim. This devotion could extend to their followers, and eventually whole communities would identify with such local heroes.
Hiroshima
Hiroshima Japanese port devastated by an atomic bomb on August 6, 1945.
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler (1889—1945) The author of Mein Karnpf and leader of the Nazis. Hitler and his Nazi regime started World War II and orchestrated the systematic murder of over five million Jews.
Hittites
Hittites An Indo-European-speaking people that migrated into Anatolia (now Turkey) around the beginning of the second millennium B.C.E.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh (1890—1969) The Vietnamese communist resistance leader who drove the French Out of Vietnam and controlled North Vietnam after the Geneva Accords divided the region into four countries.
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire The collection of lands in central and western Europe ruled over by the kings of Germany (and later Austria) from the twelfth century until 1806.
Holy Russia
Holy Russia Name applied to Muscovy, and then to the Russian empire, by Slavic Eastern Orthodox clerics who were appalled by the Muslim conquest in 1453 of Constantinople (the capital of
home charges
home charges Fees India was forced to pay to Britain as its colonial master1 these fees included interest on railroad loans, salaries to colonial officers, and the maintenance of imperial troops outside India.
Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens Term defined by Linnaeus in 1737 and commonly used to refer to fully modern human beings.
hoplite
hoplite A Greek foot soldier armed with a spear or short sword and protected by a large round shield a hopla. In battle, hoplites stood shoulder to shoulder in a close formation called a phalanx.
Huguenots
Huguenots French Protestants who endured severe persecution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Human Comedy
Human Comedy Masterpiece of French novelist Honoré de Balzac (1799—1850) that criticized materialist values.
humanism
humanism Medieval program of study built around the seven liberal arts grammer, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy.
Hundred Years’ War
Hundred Years’ War (1337—1453) Long conflict, fought mostly on French soil, between England and France, centering on English claims to the throne of France.
Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein (b. 1937) The former dictator of Iraq who invaded Iran in 1980 and started the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War invaded Kuwait in 1990, which caused the Gulf War of l99l and was overthrown when the United States invaded Iraq in 2003. Involved in Iraqi politics since the mid-I 960s, Hussein became the official head of state in 1979.
II-khanate
II-khanate Mongol-founded dynasty in thirteenth-century Persia.
Imam
Imam Muslim religious leader and also a politico-religious descendant of A1i1 believed by some to have a special relationship with Allah
Imbotep
Imbotep The chief adviser to the Pharaoh Djoser, who ruled in the 27th century B.C.E. Often considered to be the first architect, Imhotep designed tombs and other structures to express the power of the Egyptian pharaohs.
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress Formed in 1885, this political party was deeply committed to constitutional methods, industrialization, and cultural nationalism.
Indo-Europeans
Indo-Europeans A group of people that spoke variations of the same language and moved into the Near East and Mediterranean shortly after 2000 B.C.E
indulgences
indulgences Remissions of the penances owed by Catholics as part of the process by which their sins are forgiven.
Inquisition
Inquisition Tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church that aimed to enforce religious orthodoxy and conformity.
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Established in 1945 to promote the health of the world economy, the IMF is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
Intifada
Intifada Uprising in the Palestinian occupied territories from 1987 to 1993, in protest against the Israeli occupation and politics. The Oslo Agreement (1993) helped to reduce the tension between the two sides and the Intifada all but ceased by the end of 1993. In early 2000, the Intifada resumed.
Investiture Conflict
Investiture Conflict A disagreement between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV of Germany that tested the power of kings over church matters. After years of diplomatic and military hostility, it was settled by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
invisible hand
invisible hand Described in Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, the idea that the operations of a free market would produce economic efficiency and economic benefits for all.
Irish Home Rule
Irish Home Rule The late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth- century movement, led by Sinn Fein (established 1905), for Irish self-government.
Irish potato famine
Irish potato famine Period of agricultural blight from 1845 to 1849 whose devastating results prompted a mass emigration to America.
Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain Term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to refer to the division of Western Europe, under American influence, from Eastern Europe, under the domination of the Soviet Union.
Ivan the Great
Ivan the Great (1440—1505) Emperor of Russia who annexed neighboring territories and began Russia’s career as a European power.
Jacobins
Jacobins Radical French political group that came into existence during the French Revolution, executed the French king, and sought to remake French culture.
Jacquerie
Jacquerie Violent 1358 peasant uprising in northern France, incited by disease, war, and taxes.
James 1
James 1(1566—1625) Monarch of Scotland and England from 1603 to 1625. He oversaw the English vernacular translation of the Bible known by his name.
Janissaries
Janissaries Corps of enslaved soldiers recruited as children from the Christian provinces of the Ottoman empire and brought up with intense loyalty to the Ottoman state and its sultan. The sultan used these forces to curb local autonomy and to serve as his personal bodyguards.
Jesuits
Jesuits Religious order founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola to counter the inroads of the Protestant Reformation1 the Jesuits were active in politics, education, and missionary work.
Jihad
Jihad A struggle and, if need be, a holy war toward the advancement of the cause of Islam.
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc (c. 1412—143 1) French teenager, supposedly divinely inspired, who led forces against the English during the Hundred Years’ War. Burned at the stake for heresy by the English and later made a Catholic saint.
Justinian
Justinian (527—565) Emperor of eastern Rome. .Justinian codified Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis and tried to reunify the eastern and western halves of the old Roman empire.
Das Kapital
Das Kapital (Capital) The 1867 book by Karl Marx that outlined the theory behind historical materialism and attacked the socioeconomic inequities of capitalism. Mixing economic theory and revolutionary politics, the book became the preeminent socialist critique of capitalism.
Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler (1571—1601) Mathematician and astronomer who elaborated on and corrected Copernicus’s theory and is chiefly remembered for his discovery of the three laws of planetary motion that bear his name.
Keynesian Revolution
Keynesian Revolution Post-Depression economic ideas developed by the British economist John Maynard Keynes, wherein the state took a greater role in managing the economy, stimulating it by increasing the money supply and creating jobs
KGB
KGB Soviet political police and spy agency, first formed as the Cheka not long after the Bolshevik coup in October 1917. It grew to more than 750,000 operatives with military rank by the 1980s.
Chingiz Khan
Chingiz Khan (c. 1167—1227) Title taken by Mongol chief Temujin meaning “The Oceanic Ruler.” Began dynasty that conquered much of southern Asia.
Khanate
Khanate Major political unit of the vast Mongol empire. There were four Khanates, including the Yuan empire in China, forged by Chingiz Khan’s grandson Kubilai in the I 3th century.
Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev (1894—1971) Leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev had quickly reached power soon after Stalin’s death in 1953. His reforms and criticisms of the excesses of the Stalin regime led to his fall from power in 1964.
Kremlin
Kremlin Once synonymous with the Soviet government, it refers to Moscow’s walled city center.
Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht The Nazi destruction of seventy-five hundred Jewish Stores and two hundred synagogues on November 9, 1938.
kulaks
kulaks Originally a pejorative term used to designate better-off peasants, it was used in the late 1920s and early 1930s to refer to any peasant, rich or poor, perceived as an opponent of the Soviet regime. Russian for “fist.”
Labour Party
Labour Party Founded in Britain in 1900, this party represented workers and was based on socialist principles.
League of Nations
League of Nations International organization founded after World War Ito solve international disputes through arbitration1 it was dissolved in 1946 and transferred its assets to the United Nations.
Nikolai Lenin
Nikolai Lenin (I 870— 1924) Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (1917) and the first leader of the Soviet Union.
Leopold H
Leopold H (1835—1909) Belgian king who sponsored colonizing expeditions into Africa.
Leviathan
Leviathan A book by Thomas Hobbes (1588—1679) that recommended a ruler have unrestricted power
liberalism Political
liberalism Political and social theory that advocates representative government, free trade, and freedom of speech and religion.
Long March
Long March (1934—1935) Trek of over 10,000 kilometers by Mao Zedong and his Communist followers to establish a new base of operations.
Lords
lord Privileged landowner who exercised authority over the people who lived on his land.
lithograph
lithograph Art form that involves putting writing or design on stone and producing printed impressions.
lost generation
lost generation Refers to the 17 million former members of the Red Guard and other Chinese youth who were denied education from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s as part of the Chinese government’s attempt to forestall political disruptions.
Louis XIV
Louis XIV(1638—1715) The”Sun King,”known forhis opulent court and absolutist political style.
Louis XIV
Louis XVI (1754—1793) Well-meaning but ineffectual king of France, finally deposed and executed with his family by revolutionaries.
Luftwaffe
"Luftwaffe Literally “air weapon,” this is the name of the German air force, which was founded during World War I, disbanded in
Lusitania
Lusitania The passenger liner that was secretly carrying war Supplies and was sunk by a German U-boat (submarine) on May 7, 1915.
Lutheranism
Lutheranism Branch of Protestantism that followed Martin Luther’s (1483—1546) rejection of the Roman Catholic “doctrine of works.”
lycées
lycées System of high schools instituted by Napoleon as part of his domestic reform campaign.
madrassas
Muslim schools devoted to the study of the Quran and Islam.
Magna Carta
Magna Carta “Great Charter” of 1215 signed by King John of England, which limited the king’s fiscal powers and is seen as a landmark in the political evolution of the West.
Moses Maimonides
(11 35—1204) Spanish-born Jewish scholar, physician, and scriptural commentator.
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela (b. 191 8) The South African opponent of apartheid who led the African National Congress and was imprisoned from 1962 until 199fl. After his release from prison, he worked with Prime Minister Frederik Willem De Klerk to establish majority rule. Mandela became the first black president of South Africa in 1994.
Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project The secret U.S. government research project in Los Alamos, New Mexico, to develop the first nuclear bomb. The first test of a nuclear bomb was near Los Alamos on July 16, 1945,
manorialism
manorialism System common to England, northern France, and Germany in the Middle Ages of communal peasant farming under the protection of a landholding lord.
Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong (1893—1976) The leader of the Chinese Revolution who defeated the Nationalists in 1949 and established the Communist regime in China.
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Economic aid package given to Europe after World War II in hopes of a rapid period of reconstruction and economic gain and to secure the countries from a Communist takeover.
Master Eckhart
Master Eckhart (c. 1260—1327) Dominican monk who preached an introspective and charismatic version of Christian piety.
Karl Marx
Karl Marx (1818—1883) German philosopher and economist who believed that a revolution of the working classes would overthrow the capitalist order and create a classless society. Author of Das Kapital and The Communist Man(festo.
Maxim gun
Maxim gun invented in 1885 by an American, Hiram Maxim, the Maxim gun was the first portable machine gun. Quickly adopted by the majority of European armies and capable of firing 500 rounds per minute, it played a major role in the imperial conquests of the African continent.
Mayans
Mayans Native American peoples whose culturally and politically sophisticated empire encompassed lands in present-day Mexico and Guatemala.
Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805—I 872) Founder of Young Italy and an ideological leader of the Italian Nationalist movement.
Mecca
Mecca Major commercial city of the Arabian peninsula in the sixth century CE., at which time the founder of Islam, Muhammad, was born and achieved prominence. From the earliest days of the spread of Islam, the city was the destination of the chief religious pilgrimage for Muslims, and it is now considered the holiest site in the Islamic world,
medici
Medici Dynasty of Florentine bankers and politicians known for their patronage of the arts.
Meiji
Meiji empire Empire created under the leadership of Mutsuhito, emperor of Japan from 1868 until 1912. During the Meiji period ,J apan became a world industrial and naval power,
Menander
Menander (342 B.C.E.?—292 B.C.E.) Ancient Greek dramatist who wrote over 100 plays, many of which were standards of Western literature for hundreds of years. Only one complete surviving play is known, The Grouch, which was rediscovered in 1957.
mercantilism
mercantilism A popular Western belief between 1600 and 1800 that a country’s wealth and power was based on a favorable balance of trade (more exports and fewer imports) and the accumulation of precious metals
Michelangelo
Michelangelo (1475—1564) Virtuoso artist, best known for the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome and his sculptures David and Pieta.
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill (1806—I 873) English radical philosopher whose writings advocated aspects of socialism and civil liberties.
Slobodan Milosevic
Slobodan Milosevic (b. I 94 I) The Serbian nationalist politician who took control of the Serb government and orchestrated the genocide of thousands of Croatians, Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, and Kosovars. After ten years of war, he was ousted by a popular revolt in 2000.
Minoans
Minoans A sea empire that flourished on Crete and in the Aegean Basin from 1900 B.C.E. until the middle of the second millennium B.C.E.
Modernism
‘ Modernism The series of artistic movements, manifestos, innovations, and experiments that redefined art in the first half of the twentieth century. Modernism rejected history and tradition in favor of expressive and experimental freedom.
Michel de Montaigne
Michel de Montaigne (1533—1592) French philosopher known for his Essays.
mosque
mosque Place of worship for the people of Islam.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756—1791) Austrian child prodigy and composer of instrumental music and operas.
Muhammad
Muhammad (570—6 32 G.E.) The founder of Islam, he claimed to be the prophet whom God (Allah) had chosen for his final revelation to mankind.
Mullahs
Mullahs Iranian religious leaders who led the opposition movement against the shah and denounced the depravity of late-twentieth- century American materialism and secularism.
multinational
multinational corporations Corporations based in many different countries that have global investment, trading, and distribution goals.
Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood Egyptian organization founded in 1938 by Hassan al-Banna. It attacked liberal democracy as a façade for middle- class, business, and landowning interests and fought for a return to a purified form of Islam.
Muslim League
Muslim League National Muslim party of India.
Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini (1 883—1945) The Italian founder of the Fascist party who came to power in Italy in 1922 and allied himself with Hitler and the Nazis during World War II.
Mutiny of 1 857
Mutiny of 1 857 Uprising of Indian soldiers against the ruling British, sometimes called the Sepoy Rebellion,
Mycenaens
Mycenaens The ancient Greek civilization that settled in Greece during the second millennium B.C.E. and organized around powerful citadels.
Nagasaki
Nagasaki Second Japanese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb. The attack took place on August 9, 1945; the Japanese surrendered shortly thereafter, ending World War II.
Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code Legal code drafted by Napoleon in 1804 it distilled different legal traditions to create one uniform law. The code confirmed the abolition of feudal privileges of all kinds and set the conditions for exercising property rights.
National Assembly of France
National Assembly of France Governing body of France that succeeded the Estates-General in 1789 during the French Revolution. It was composed of, and defined by, the delegates of the Third Estate.
National Association
(NAACP) Founded in 1910, this U.S. civil rights organization segregation for black Americans.
Nationalism
Nationalism Movement to unify a country based on a people’s common history and social traditions.
NATO
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which was a 1949 agreement between the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and 8 European countries that declared that an armed attack against any one of the members would be regarded as an attack against all. Other European countries have since joined.
NAVVIES
“navvies” Slang for laborers who built railroads and canals.
Nazi Party
Nazi Party Founded in the early 1920s, the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NDSAP) gained control over Germany under the leadership of Adolf Hitler in 1933 and continued in power until Germany was defeated in 1945.
Nefertiti
Nefertiti The wife of Akhenaten, the fourteenth-century B.C Egyptian pharaoh.
Neolithic
Neolithic The “New” Stone Age, which began around 11 CC C B.C.E., saw new technological and social developments, including managed food production, the beginnings of semipermanent and permanent settlements, and the rapid intensification of trade.
New Deal
New Deal President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s package of government reforms that were enacted during the 1930s to provide jobs for the unemployed, social welfare programs for the poor, and security to the financial markets.
new imperialism
new imperialism Expansion of colonial power by Western European nations, especially in Asia, in the last three decades of the nineteenth century.
Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton (1642—1 727) One of the foremost scientists of all time, Newton was an English mathematician and physicist1 he is noted for his development of calculus, work on the properties of light, and theory of gravitation.
Nicholas
Nicholas 1(1796—1855) Russian tsar who executed the leaders of the 1825 December Revolution and pursued an absolutist reign.
Tsar Nicholas
Tsar Nicholas 11(1868—1918) The last Russian tsar, who abdicated the throne in 1917. He and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks on July 17, 1918.
Nicomachean Ethics
Nicomachean Ethics The treatise on moral philosophy by Aristotle, which teaches that the highest good consists of the harmonious functioning of the individual human mind and body.
Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844—1900) The German philosopher who denied the possibility of knowing absolute ‘truth” or “reality,” since all knowledge comes filtered through linguistic, scientific, or artistic systems of representation. He also criticized Judeo-Christian morality for instilling a repressive conformity that drained civilization of its vitality.
Non-governmental
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Private organizations like the Red Cross that play a large role in international affairs.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Treaty negotiated in the early 1990s to promote free trade among Canada, the United States, and Mexico.
Novum Organum
Novum Organum Work by English statesman and scientist Francis Bacon (1561—1626) that advanced a philosophy of study through observation.
OPEC
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) Organization created in 1960 by oil-producing countries in the Middle East, South America, and Africa to regulate the production and pricing of crude oil.
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa The codename for Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union.
Opium War
Opium War (1839—1842) War fought between the British and Qing China to protect British trade in opium1 resulted in the ceding of Hong Kong to the British.
Oracle at Delphi
Oracle at Delphi Dating to 1400 B.C.E., the oracle was the most important shrine in ancient Greece. A priestess of Apollo who attended the shrine was believed to be able to predict the future. The shrine ceased to function in the fourth century CE.
Ottoman slavery
Ottoman slavery Social system of using slave labor for domestic, administrative, and military work that permitted social advancement and religious diversity within the Muslim empire.
Pan-African Conference
Pan-African Conference 1900 assembly in London which sought to draw attention to the sovereignty of African people and their mistreatment by colonial powers.
Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism Cultural movement that sought to unite native Slavic peoples within the Russian and Habsburg empires.
papal
Of, relating to, or issued by a pope.
Patria
Latin, meaning “fatherland.”
patricians
patricians The uppermost elite class of ancient Rome.
Paul
Paul One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, Paul spread Christianity throughout the Near East and Greece.
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor The American Navy base in Hawaii that was bombed by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, which brought the United States into World War II.
Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War The ancient Greek war between Sparta and Athens that began in 431 B.C.E. and ended with the destruction of the Athenian fleet in 404 B.C.E.
People’s Charter
People’s Charter An action of the Chartist Movement (1839—1 848),. between 1839 and 1842 over 3 million British signed this document calling for universal suffrage for adult males, the secret ballot, electoral districts, and annual parliamentary elections.
Perestroika
Perestroika Introduced by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in June 1987, Perestroika was the name given to economic and political reforms begun earlier in his tenure. It restructured the state bureaucracy, reduced the privileges of the political elite, and instituted a shift from the centrally planned economy to a mixed economy, combining planning with the operation of market forces.
Pericles
Pericles The fifth-century B.C.E. Athenian leader who served as strategos for thirty years and pushed through reforms to make Athens more democratic by giving every citizen the right to propose and amend legislation and making it easier for citizens to participate in the assembly and the great appeals court of Athens by paying an average day’s wage for attendance.
Peterloo Massacre
Peterloo Massacre (1819) The killing of 11 and wounding of 460 following a peaceful demonstration for political reform by workers in Manchester, England.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great (1672—1725) Energetic tsar who transformed Russia into a leading European country by centralizing government, modernizing the army, creating a navy, and reforming education and the economy.
Francesco Petrarch
Francesco Petrarch (1304—1374) Italian scholar and writer who revived interest in classical writing styles and was famed for his love sonnets.
Pharisees
Pharisees A group of Jewish teachers and preachers that emerged in the third century B.C.E. and insisted that all of Yahweh’s (God’s) commandments were binding on all Jews.
Philip 11
Philip 11(382—336 B.C.E.) The Macedonian king who consolidated the southern Balkans and the Greek city-states; he was the father of Alexander.
Phoenicians
Phoenicians The semitic-speaking residents of present-day Lebanon from around 1200 to 800 B.C.E. The Phoenician cities were centers for trade throughout the Mediterranean.
Plato’s Republic
Plato’s Republic The first systematic treatment of political philosophy ever written, it argued for an elitist state in which most people would be governed by intellectually superior “philosopher-kings.”
plebians
plebians The citizen population of ancient Rome that included farmers, merchants, and the urban poor1 plebians comprised the majority of the population.
Plotinus
Plotinus (204—270 CE.) The neo-Platonist philosopher who taught that everything that exists proceeds from the divine and that the highest goal of life should be the mystic reunion of the soul with the divine, which can be achieved through contemplation and asceticism.
Polis
Polis One of the major political innovations of the ancient Greeks was the Polis, or city-state. They were independent social
POLIS CONTINUES
and political structures, organized around an urban center, containing markets, meeting places, and a temple1 they controlled a limited amount of the surrounding territory.
Marco Polo (
Marco Polo (1254—1324) Venetian merchant who traveled through Asia for twenty years and published his observations in a widely read memoir, Travels.
Populists
Populists Members of a political movement that supported U.S. farmers in late nineteenth-century America. The term is often used generically to refer to political groups who appeal to the mass of the population.
potato famine
potato famine (1845—1850) Severe famine in Ireland that led to the migration of large numbers of Irish to the United States.
Prague Spring
Prague Spring A period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia between January and August 1968 that was initiated by Alexander Dubek, the Czech leader. This period of expanding freedom and openness in this Eastern bloc nation ended on August 20, when the USSR and Warsaw Pact countries invaded with 200,000 troops and 5,000 tanks.
The Praise of Folly
The Praise of Folly 1511 satire by Erasmus that attacked the corruption of the papacy.
Pre-Socratics
Pre-Socratics A group of philosophers on the Greek island of Miletus, including Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes, who raised questions about the relationship between the natural world, the gods, and humans, and formulated rational theories to explain the physical universe they observed.
Primitivism
Primitivism Movement in Western art forms in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that used the so-called primitive art forms of Africa, Oceania, and pre-Columbian America to inspire a break with the established art world.
The Prince
The Prince Influential treatise by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 1527) that attempts to lay out methods to secure and maintain political power.
Protestantism
Protestantism Division of Christianity that emerged in sixteenth CENTURY WESTEREN EUROPE AT THE TIME OF THE REFORMATION. IT FOCUSED on individual spiritual needs and rejected the social authority of the papasy AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH CLERGY.
PTOLEMY
ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ANCIENT GREEK he was a leading astronomer, mathematician, -GEOGRAPHER WHO LIVED HIS ENTIRE LIFE IN Alexander and helped transform that city into a center of scientific and scholarship.
puppet states
puppet states Governments that have little power in the international arena and follow the dictates of their more powerful neighbors or patrons.
Puritans
Puritans Seventeenth-century reform group of the Church of England; also known as dissenters or nonconformists.
Quran
Quran (often Koran) Islam’s holy book, comprised of Allah’s revelations.
Sayyid Qutb
Sayyid Qutb (1906—1966) The Egyptian critic who became one of the most important intellectual leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood and whose writings are often cited as philosophical inspiration for Osama bin Laden and other Islamic radicals.
François Rabelais
François Rabelais (c. 14947—1553) French humanist satirist best known for his crudely comic Gargantua and Pantagruel, in which he espouses the “eat, drink, and be merry” lifestyle. Originally a novice in the Franciscan order, later a Benedictine monk who left the order to study medicine, Rabelais spent time in hiding for fear of being labeled a heretic, and some of his books were banned.
radicals
radicals Widely used term in nineteenth-century Europe that referred to those individuals and political organizations that favored the total reconfiguration of Europe’s old state system.
Raj
Raj Term referring to the British crown’s administration of India following the end of the East India Company’s rule after the Indian Mutiny of 1857.
Ramadan
Ramadan Ninth month of the Muslim year, during which all Muslims must fast during daylight hours.
Raphael
Raphael (1483—1520) Italian painter noted for his warmly human treatment of religious subjects, particularly his Madonnas and large- figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome.
realism
Realism Artistic and literary style which sought to portray common situations as they would appear in reality.
Realpolitik
Realpolitik Political strategy advancing power for its own sake. Rebellion of 1857 Indian rebellion against the English East India Company to bring religious purification, an egalitarian society, and local and communal solidarity without the interference of British rule.
Reds
Reds The Bolsheviks.
Reformation
Reformation Religious and political movement in sixteenthcentury Europe that led to the breakaway of Protestant groups from the Catholic Church, notable figures include Martin Luther and John Calvin.
Reich
Reich A term for the German state. The first Reich corresponded to the Holy Roman Empire (9th century to 1806), the second Reich was from 1871 to 1919, and the third Reich lasted from 1933 through May 1945.
Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror Campaign at the height of the French Revolution (1793—1794) in which violence, including systematic executions of opponents of the Revolution, was used to purge france ot its “enemies” and to extend the Revolution beyond its borders; radica)s executeâ as many as 4O,OOO persons who were judged enemies of the state
Religious Peace of Augsburg
Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555 settlement between factions within the Holy Roman Empire that stated a territory would follow the religion of its ruler, whether Catholic or Protestant.
Renaissance
Renaissance Term meaning “rebirth” that historians use to refer to the expanded cultural production of European nations between 1300 and 1600.
Restoration period
Restoration period (1815—1848) European movement after the defeat of Napoleon to restore Europe to its pre-French revolutionary status and to prevent radical movements from arising.
Richard 11
Richard 11(1367—1400) King of England (r. 1377—1399), chiefly remembered for his successful resolution of the Peasants’ Rebellion (1381) and as a vacillating, yet tyrannical monarch. He was deposed by his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) and assassinated.
Cardinal Richelieu
"Cardinal Richelieu (1585—1642) First minister to French King Louis XIII, who centralized political power and deprived the Huguenots of many rights.
Romanticism Beginning
Romanticism Beginning in Germany and England in the late 18th century and continuing up to the end of the 19th century, a movement in art, music, and literature that countered the rationalism of the Enlightenment by stressing a highly emotional response to nature.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1718—1778) Philosopher and radical political theorist whose Social Contract attacked privilege and inequality. One of the primary principles of Rousseau’s political philosophy is that politics and morality should not be separated.
Russification
Russification Programs designed to assimilate people of over 146 dialects into the Russian empire by the tsars in the late 19th century.
Rwanda
Rwanda A former Belgian colony in central Africa that has been torn by ethnic violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis since before the country’s independence in 1962.
Saint Bartholomew’s
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Massacre of French Protestants (Huguenots) by Catholic crowds that began in Paris on August 24, 1572, spreading to other parts of France and continuing into October of that year. More than 70,000 were killed.
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Massacre of French Protestants (Huguenots) by Catholic crowds that began in Paris on August 24, 1572, spreading to other parts of France and continuing into October of that year. More than 70,000 were killed.
St. Domingue
St. Domingue Former French Caribbean colony and site of a slave rebellion in 1791, which embroiled English and French forces until 1804, when St. Domingue was declared the independent nation of Haiti.
salons
salons Informal gatherings of intellectuals and aristocrats that allowed discourse about Enlightenment ideas.
Santa Sophia
Santa Sophia The Byzantine church in Constantinople, constructed by emperor Justinian I in the sixth century, and famous for its dome, which rested on the keystones of four great arches.
Sappho
Sappho (c. 620—c. 550 B.C.E.) One of the most famous Greek lyric poets, she wrote beautiful poetry about romantic longing and sexual lust, sometimes about men, but more often about women.
Sargon
Sargon (r. 23 34—2279 B.C.E.) The Akkadian leader who unified Mesopotamia.
Schileffen Plan
Schileffen Plan Devised by Count Alfred von Schiieffen in 1905 and put into operation on August 2, 1914, the Schlieffen Plan required France to be attacked first through Belgium and a quick victory be secured so that the German army could fight Russia on the Eastern Front.
Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa European rush to colonize parts of Africa at the end of the nineteenth century.
Second Industrial Revolution
Second Industrial Revolution The technological developments in the last third of the nineteenth century, which that included new techniques for refining and producing steel, increased availability of electricity for industrial, commercial, and domestic use1 advances in chemical manufacturing1 and the creation of the internal combustion engine.
Second World war
Second World War Worldwide war that began in September 1939 in Europe, and even earlier in Asia (1930s), and that pitted Britain, the United States, and especially the Soviet Union (the Allies) against Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan (the Axis).
Second World Term
Second World Term invented during the cold war to refer to the Communist countries, as opposed to the West (or First World) and the former colonies (or Third World).
Seleucus
Seleucus (d. 280 B.C.E.) The Macedonian general who ruled the Asian territory of Alexander the Great’s empire and founded Greek colonies such as Antioch and Selsucia.
Semitic
Semitic The Semitic language family has the longest recorded history of any linguistic group and is the root language for most of the languages of the Middle and Near East. Ancient Semitic languages include the language of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians, Phneniciari, the classical form of Hebrew, early dialects of Aramaic, and the classical Arabic of the Quran.
sepoys
sepoys Hindu and Muslim recruits of the East India Company’s military force.
serfdom
serfdom Slavery-like system of customs and laws whereby peasants were kept poor and stationary by their manor lords1 it had spread throughout the West by the 10th century and its peak was the Middle Ages.
Seven Years War
Seven Years War (1756—1763) Worldwide war that ended when Prussia defeated Austria, establishing itself as a European power, and when Britain gained control of India and many of France’s colonies through the Treaty of Paris. It is known as the French and Indian War in the United States.
Shah
Traditional title of Persian rulers.
Shiism
Shiism One of the two main branches of Islam. Shiites recognizeAli, the fourth caliph, and his descendants as rightful rulers of the
Shiites
"Shiites An often-persecuted minority religious party within Islam insists only descendants of ali can have authority over the Muslim community.today Shittes rule Iran and are numerous in iraq but make up only 10 percent of the worldwide population of islam
None
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley Valley between California’s San Francisco and San Jose, known for its innovative computer and high-technology industry
Sinn Fein
Sinn Fein The Irish revolutionary organization that formed in 1900 to fight for Irish independence.
Sino-Japanese War
Sino-Japanese War (1894—1895) Conflict over the control of Korea in which China was forced to cede the province of Taiwan to Japan.
Adam Smith
Adam Smith (1723—1790) Scottish economist and philosopher who proposed that individual self-interest naturally promoted a healthy national economy. He became famous for his influentiai book, The Wealth of Nations (1776).
Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Belief that Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection (evolution) was applicable to human societies and justified the right of the ruling classes or countries to dominate the weak.
socialism
socialism Political ideology that calls for a classless society withcollective ownership of all property
Social Security Act
Social Security Act (1935) New Deal act that instituted old-age pensions and insurance for the unemployed in the United States.
Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus Also called the Jesuit order, a group of priests fluenced by military discipline. The society was founded by San Ignatius of Loyola (1491—1556) and is still very active in the field of education.
Socrates
Socrates (469—399 B.C.E.) The ancient Greek philosopher s emphasized the reexamination of all inherited assumptions a tried to base his philosophical speculations on sound definitions of words. He also wished to advance to a new system of truth by examining ethics rather than by studying the physical world.
Solidarity
Solidarity The communist blocs first independent trade union1 it was established in Poland at the Gdansk shipyard in 1980.
Solon
Solon (d. 559 B.C.E.) Elected archon in 594 B.C.E., this ancient Greek aristocrat enacted a series of political and economic reforms that made Athenian democracy possible.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (b. 191 8) This Soviet novelist was a critic of the Soviet regime and wrote The Gulag Archipelago, whichwas published in 1974.
Sophists
Sophists Ancient Greek professional teachers who taught that sense perception was the source of all knowledge and that only particular truths could be valid for the individual knower.
South African War
South African War (1899—1902) Often called the Boer War, this conflict between the British and Dutch colonists of South Africa resulted in bringing two Afrikaner republics under the control of the British.
Soviet bloc
Soviet bloc International alliance that included the East European countries of the Warsaw Pact as well as the Soviet Union, but also came to include Cuba.
Spanish-American War
South African War (1899—1902) Often called the Boer War, this conflict between the British and Dutch colonists of South Africa resulted in bringing two Afrikaner republics under the control of the British.
Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada Supposedly invincible fleet of warships sent against England by Philip II of Spain in 1588, but routed by the Etiglish and bad weather in the English Channel.
Spartiate
Spartiate A full citizen of Sparta who was a professional soldier of the hoplite phalanx.
spinning
spinning jenny Invention of James Hargreaves (c. 1720—1774) that revolutionized the British textile industry
S.S. (Schutzstaffel)
S.S. (Schutzstaffel) Formed in 1925 to serve as Hitler’s personal security force and to guard Nazi party (NDSAP) meetings, the SS were notorious for their participation in carrying out Nazi policies.
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin (1879—1953) The Bolshevik leader who succeeded Lenin as the leader of the Soviet Union in 1924 and ruled until his death.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Strategic Defense Initiative (Stars Wars) Master plan initiated by President Ronald Reagan that envisioned the deployment of satellites and space missiles to insulate the United States from nuclear bombs missiles.
Stoicism
Stoicism The ancient Greek and Roman philosophy that held that the cosmos is an ordered whole in which all contradictions are resolved for ultimate good. Everything that happens is rigidly determined in accordance with rational purpose and no individual is master of his or her fate. Founded in the fourth century B.C.E. and still popular well into the fifth century CE.
Suez Canal
Suez Canal Built in 1869 across the Isthmus of Suez to connect the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea and to lower the costs of international trade.
Sufism
Sufism Emotional and mystical form of Islam that appealed to the common people.
sultan
sultan An Islamic political leader. In the Ottoman empire, the sultan combined a warrior ethos with an unwavering devotion to Islam.
Sumerians
Sumerians The civilization and people that arose in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq and Kuwait) around 4000 B.C.E. and developed one of the first written languages.
Sunnism
Orthodox Islam, as opposed to Shiite Islam.
Supranational organizations
Supranational organizations International organizations such as NGOs, the World Bank, and the IMF.
survival of the fittest
survival of the fittest A main concept of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection (evolution), which holds that as animal populations grow and resources become scarce, a struggle for existence arises, the outcome of which is that only the “fittest” survive.
sweatshops
sweatshops Textile factories with poor pay and work conditions.
Syndicalism
Syndicalism Late-nineteenth-century organization of workplace associations that included unskilled labor.
tabula rasa
tabula rasa Term used by John Locke (1632—1704) to describe man’s mind before he acquired ideas as a result of experience1 Latin for “clean slate.
Testament of Youth
Testament of Youth The memoir by Vera Brittain about the home front and the changing social norms during World War I.
Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy Diocletian’s political reform, which divided the Roman Empire into two halves ruled by two rulers and two lieutenants.
Third Estate
Third Estate Delegates from the common class to the Estates General, the French legislature, whose refusal to capitulate to the nobility and clergy in 1789 had to the Revolution.
Third Reich
Third Reich The German state from 1933 to 1945 under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party.
Third World Nations
Third World Nations—mostly in Asia, Latin America, and Africa—that are not highly industrialized and developed.
Thirty Years’ War
Thirty Years’ War (161 8—1648) Beginning as a conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany, it escalated into a general European war fought in Germany by Sweden, France, and the Holy Roman Empire.
Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square Largest public square in the world, located in Beijing, the site of the Chinese pro-democracy movement in 1989 that resulted in the killing of as many as 1,000 protesters by the Chinese army.
Timur the Lame
Timur the Lame (1336—1405) Mongol ruler who was the last leader of the Khans’ south Asian empire. Also known as Tamerlane.
Total war
Total war All-out war involving civilian populations as well as military forces, often used in reference to World War II.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (19 1 8) Separate peace between imperial Germany and the new Bolshevik regime in Russia. The treaty acknowledged the German victory on the Eastern Front and withdrew Russia from the war.
Treaty of Nanjing
Treaty of Nanjing (1842) Treaty between China and Britain following the Opium War; it called for indemnities, the opening of new ports, and the cession of Hong Kong to the British
Treaty of Utrecht
(1713) Resolution to the War of Spanish Succession that redistributed territory among the warring nations of Europe and encouraged England’s colonial conquests.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles Signed on June 28, 1919, this peace settlement ended World War I and required Germany to surrender a large part of its most valuable territories and to pay huge reparations to the Allies.
trench warfare
trench warfare The twenty-five thousand miles of holes and ditches that stretched across the Western Front during World War I and where most of the fighting took place.
triangular
triangular” trade The eighteenth-century commercial Atlantic shipping pattern that took rum from New England to Africa, traded it for slaves taken to the West Indies, and brought sugar back to New England to be processed into rum.
Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact (1940) A pact that stated that the countries of Germany, Italy, and Japan would act together in all future military ventures.
Triple Entente
Triple Entente Alliance developed before World War I that eventually included Britain, France, and Russia.
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine (1947) Declaration promising U.S. economic and military intervention, whenever and wherever needed, for the sake of preventing further communist expansion.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Truth and Reconciliation Commission Quasi-judicial body established after the overthrow of the apartheid system in South Africa and the election of Nelson Mandela as the country’s first black president in 1994. The commission was to take evidence about the crimes committed during the apartheid years. Those who showed remorse could appeal for clemency. The South African leaders believed that an airing of the grievances from this period would promote racial harmony and reconciliation.
tsar
tsar Russian translation, similar to the German kaiser, of the Roman title “caesar” (emperor), a title claimed by the rulers of medieval Muscovy and then the Russian empire.
Mary Tudor
Mary Tudor (1516—1558) Catholic daughter of Henry VIII who reinstituted Catholicism in England when she acceded to the throne1 she was called “Bloody Mary” for her violent suppression of Protestants during her five-year reign.
Two Treatises on Government
Two Treatises on Government Published in 1690, this work by John Locke (1632—1704) defended humans’ right to freedom against absolutist ideas and served as one of the underpinnings of the U.S. Constitution.
Ubaid
Ubaid This cultured flourished in Mesopotamia between 5500 and 4000 B.C.E., characterized by large village settlements and the first temples built in that area. A precursor to the Sumerians and the development of “urban” civilizations.
UFA
UFA The German film company that produced films by expressionist directors like F. W. Murnau and Fritz Lang during the 1920s. Under Hitler, it was controlled by the state and began turning out Nazi propaganda.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(1948) United Nations declaration that laid out the rights to which all human beings were entitled.
Utopia
Utopia Humanist social critique by English statesman Thomas More (1478—1535).
utopian socialism
utopian socialism The most visionary of all Restoration-era movements, Utopian socialists, like Charles Fourier, dreamt of transforming states, workplaces, and human relations, and proposed actual plans to do so.
velvet revolutions”
velvet revolutions” The peaceful political revolutions throughout Eastern Europe in 1989.
Versailles
Versailles Splendid palace outside Paris where Louis XIV and his nobles resided.
Versailles Conference
Versailles Conference (1919) Peace conference between the victors of World War I. resulted in the Treaty of Versailles, which forced Germany to pay reparations and to give up its colonies to the victors.
Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria (1819—1901) Influential monarch who reigned from 1837 to her death she presided over the expansion of the British empire as well as the evolution of English politics and social and economic reforms.
Viet Cong
Viet Cong Vietnamese communist group formed in 1954 committed to overthrowing the government of South Vietnam and reunifying North and South Vietnam.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Noted work of Mary Wollstonecraft (1759—1797), English republican who applied Enlightenment political ideas to issues of gender.
Virgil
Virgil (70—19 B.C.E.) One of the most influential Roman authors, his surviving works include the Eclogues and the Roman epic poem, the Aeneid
Visigoths
Visigoths The German “barbarians” who sacked Rome in 410.
Voltaire
Voltaire Pseudonym of French philosopher and satirist Francois Marie Arouet (1694—1797), who championed the cause of human dignity against state and church oppression. Noted Deist and author of Candide.
Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act (1965) Law that granted universal suffrage in the United States.
War of the Roses
War of the Roses Fifteenth-century conflict between the English dynastic houses of Lancaster and York (each symbolized in heraldry by the rose), ultimately won by Lancastrian Henry VII.
Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact (1955—1991) Military alliance between the U.S.S.R. and other Communist states that was established as a response to the creation of the NATO alliance.
James Watt
James Watt (1736—1819) Scottish inventor and scientist who developed the steam engine
Wealth of Nations
Wealth of Nations 1776 treatise by Adam Smith, whose laissez-faire ideas predicted the economic boom of the Industrial Revolution
Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic The government of Germany between 1919 and the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party.
Western Front
Western Front Military front that stretched from the English Channel through Belgium and France to the Alps during World War l.
Whites
Whites Refers to the “counterrevolutionaries” of the Bolshevik Revolution (1918—1921) who fought the Bolsheviks (the “Reds”); included former supporters of the tsar, Social Democrats, and large independent peasant armies.
William and Mary
William and Mary (1650—1702 and 1662—1694) Dutch noble couple who supplanted the deposed Catholic King James II in 1688 as monarchs of England.