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32 Cards in this Set

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Austro-Hungarian empire
Austro-Hungarian empire The dual monarchy established by the Habsburg family in 1867, it collapsed at the end of World War I.
Authoritarianism
authoritarianism A centralized and dictatorial form of government, proclaimed by its adherents to be superior to parliamentary democracy and especially effective at mobilizing the masses. Authoritarianism was prominent in the 1930s.
Avignon
Avignon City on the southeastern border of France. Between 305 and 378 it was the seat of the papacy.
Aztecs
Aztecs Native American people of central Mexico1 their empire was conquered by the Spanish in the sixteenth century.
baby boom
baby boom (1950s) The post—World War II upswing in U.S. birth rates; it reversed a century of decline.
Baghdad Pact
Baghdad Pact (1955) The Middle Eastern military alliance among countries friendly with America who were also willing to align themselves with the Western countries against the Soviet Union.
Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration A letter dated November 2, 1917, by Lord ArthurJ. Balfour, British Foreign Secretary, that promised a homeland for the Jews in Palestine.
Baroque
Baroque An ornate style of art and music associated with the Counter Reformation (from the French word for “irregularly shaped pearl”).
Bay of Pigs
Bay of Pigs (1961) The unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government. The rebels intended to incite an insurrection in Cuba and overthrow the Communist regime of Fidel Castro.
Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch (1923) The Nazi invasion of a meeting of Bavarian leaders and supporters in a Munich beer hall1 Adolf Hitler was imprisoned for a year after the incident.
Saint Benedict of Nursia (
Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. 480—c. 547) Considered the father of western monasticism, Saint Benedict created the Benedictine rule that became the guide for nearly all western monks. Monks were required to follow the rules laid down by Saint Benedict: poverty, sexual chastity, obedience, labor, and religious devotion.
Berlin Airlift
Berlin Airlift (1948) The supply of Vital necessities to West Berlin by air transport primarily under U.S. auspices. It was initiated in response to a blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union to force the Allies to abandon West Berlin.
Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall The wall built in 1961 by East German Communists to prevent citizens of East Germany from fleeing to West Germany 1 it was torn down in 1989.
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution; it was ratified in 1791.
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck (18 15—1890) The prime minister of Prussia and later the first chancellor of Germany, Bismarck helped consolidate the German people’s economic and military power.
Black Death
Black Death The epidemic of bubonic plague that ravaged EuLrope, East Asia, and North Africa in the fourteenth century, killing
Black Jacobins
Black Jacobins A nickname for the rebels in Saint Domingue, including Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former slave who in 1791 led the slaves of this French colony in the largest and most successful slave insurrection.
Black Panthers
Black Panthers A radical African American group that came together in the I 960s, the Black Panthers advocated black separatism and pan-Africanism.
Blackshirts
Blackshirts The troops of Mussolini’s fascist regime1 the squads received money from Italian landowners to attack socialist leaders.
Black Tuesday
Black Tuesday (October 24, 1929) The day on which theU.S. stock market crashed, plunging the U.S. and internationaltrading systems into crisis and leading the world into the “GreatDepression.”
Blitzkreig
Blitzkreig The German “lightning war” strategy used during World War ll the Germans invaded Poland, France, Russia, and other countries with fast-moving well-coordinated attacks using aircraft, tanks and other armored vehicles, followed by infantry.
Bloody Sunday
Bloody Sunday On Sunday, January 22, 1905, the Russian tsar’s guards killed 130 demonstrators who were protesting the tsar’s mistreatment of workers and the middle class.
Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio (1 313—1375) Italian prose writer famed for his Decameron, one hundred short stories about the human condition, mostly from a comic or cynical point of view.
Boer War
Boer War Conflict between British and ethnically European Afrikaners in South Africa, 1898—1902, with terrible casualties on both sides.
Simon de Bolivar
Simon de Bolivar (1783—1830) Venezuelan-born general called “The Liberator” for his assistance in helping Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela win independence from Spain.
Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks Former members of the Russian Social Democratic Party who advocated the destruction of capitalist political and economic institutions and started the Russian Revolution. In 1918 the Bolsheviks changed their name to the Russian Communist Party.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769—1821) Corsican-born French gen eral who seized power and ruled as dictator 1799—18 14. After successful conquest of much of Europe, he was defeated by Russian and Prussian forces and died in exile.
Bourgeoisie
Bourgeoisie The French term for the middle class, which emerged in Europe during the Middle Ages. The Bourgeoisie sought to be recognized not by birth or title, but by capital and property.
Boxer Uprising
Boxer Uprising (1899—1900) Chinese peasant movement that opposed foreign influence, especially that of Christian missionaries 1 it was finally put down after the Boxers were defeated by a foreign army comprised mostly of Japanese, Russian, British, French, and American soldiers.
British Commonwealth
British Commonwealth of Nations Formed in 1926, the Commonwealth conferred “dominion status” on Britain’s white settler colonies in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Brownshirts
Brownshirts Troops of young German men who dedicated themselves to the Nazi cause in the early 1930s by holding street marches, mass rallies, and confrontations. They engaged in beatings of Jews and anyone who opposed the Nazis.
bubonic plague
bubonic plague An acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium that is transmitted to humans by fleas from infected rats. It ravaged Europe and parts of Asia in the fourteenth century. Sometimes referred to as the “black death.”