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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ice age a long period of climatic cooling during which the continents are glaciated repeatedly
ice age
iceberg a large piece of ice that breaks off a glacier and drifts into the ocean
ice wedging mechanical weathering caused by the freezing and thawing of water that seeps into cracks in rocks
ice wedging
icosahedron a polyhedron that has 20 triangular faces
ideal fluid a fluid that has no internal friction or viscosity and is incompressible
ideal fluid
ideal gasan imaginary gas whose particles are infinitely small and do not interact with each other
ideal gas
ideal gas constant the proportionality constant that appears in the equation of state for 1 mol of an ideal gas; R = 0.082 057 84 L • atm/mol • K
ideal gas constant
ideal gas law the law that states the mathematical relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R), and the number of moles of a gas (n); PV = nRT
ideal gas law
igneous rock rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
igneous rock
ileum the middle portion of the small intestine where many nutrients are absorbed
illuminated describes visible objects that are not a light source
immigration the movement of an individual or a group to a new community or region
immiscible describes two or more liquids that do not mix with each other
immune response the reaction of the body against an antigen
immune response
immune system the cells and tissues that recognize and attack foreign substances in the body
immune system
immunity the ability to resist or recover from an infectious disease
impermeable describes something that does not allow water to pass through
implantation the process by which the newly fertilized egg in the blastocyst stage embeds itself in the lining of the uterus
imprinting learning that occurs early and quickly in a young animal’s life and that cannot be changed once learned
impulse the product of the force and the time over which the force acts on an object
impulse an electrical message that passes along a neuron
inactivated a vaccine that has been treated so that its component microorganisms no longer have the ability to cause disease
inbreeding the crossing or mating of plants or animals with close relatives
incandescent light the light produced by hot objects
incandescent light
incisor any of the four cutting teeth located between the canines in the upper and lower jaws
inclined plane a simple machine that is a straight, slanted surface, which facilitates the raising of loads; a ramp
inclined plane
incomplete dominance a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully
incomplete dominance
incurrent siphon a tube through which water enters the body of a bivalve
incurrent siphon
the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
independent assortment
in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated
independent variable
index contour on a map, a darker, heavier contour line that is usually every fifth line and that indicates a change in elevation
index contour
index fossil a fossil that is used to establish the age of a rock layer because the fossil is distinct, abundant, and widespread and the species that formed that fossil existed for only a short span of geologic time
index fossil
index of refraction the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given transparent medium
index of refraction
indicator a compound that can reversibly change color depending on conditions such as pH
indoleacetic acid a plant hormone that stimulates cell growth, especially in the plant tips that do not face the sun (abbreviation, IAA)
indoleacetic acid
inducer a substance that combines with and inactivates a repressor which allows the transcription of a gene
induction the generation of voltages, currents, electric fields, or magnetic fields by interactions between these quantities without direct contact
inertia the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object
a disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be transmitted from one individual to another
infectious disease
inference a conclusion that is based on facts but that is not the direct and absolute result of those facts
inferior vena cava the large vein that carries blood from the lower part of the body to the heart
inferior vena cava
infertile unable to produce offspring
inflammatory response a protective response of tissues affected by disease or injury, characterized by redness, swelling, and pain
inflammatory response
infrasonic describes sounds whose frequencies are lower than 20 Hz
infrasound slow vibrations of frequencies lower than 20 Hz
infrastructure the basic facilities of a country or region, such as roads, bridges, and sewers
ingestion the process of taking in food
inhibitor a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction
innate behavior an inherited behavior that does not depend on the environment or experience
innate behavior
inner core the solid, dense center of the Earth
inner core
inner ear the part of the ear where vibrations created by sound are changed into electrical signals for the brain to interpret
inner ear
inorganic describes something that is not made up of living organisms or the remains of living organisms
insertion the point at which a muscle is attached to a bone
inspiration the process of taking air from the outside of the body into the lungs
the velocity of an object at some instant or at a specific point in the object's path
instantaneous velocity
insulation a substance that reduces the transfer of electricity, heat, or sound
insulin a hormone that is produced by a group of specialized cells in the pancreas and that lowers blood glucose levels
integrated circuit a circuit whose components are formed on a single semiconductor
integrated circuit
integument the covering of a body part or organ; the coat of the ovule
integumentary systemthe body system that includes the skin and the structures produced by the skin, such as hair and nails, and that forms a protective body covering
integumentary system
intensity in Earth science, the amount of damage caused by an earthquake
intensity in physical science, the rate at which energy flows through a given area of space
intensity in physical science,
intensive property a property that does not depend on the amount of matter present, such as pressure, temperature, or density
intensive property
interference the combination of two or more waves that results in a single wave
interferon a protein that is produced by cells infected by a virus and that can protect uninfected cells from reproduction of the virus
interglacial perioda period of warmer climate that occurs during an ice age and that is characterized by the retreat of glaciers
interglacial period
intermediate a substance that forms in a middle stage of a chemical reaction and is considered a stepping stone between the parent substance and the final product
intermediate host a host that gives food and shelter to immature stages of a parasite
intermediate host
intermolecular forces the forces of attraction between molecules
intermolecular forces
internal energy a property that includes the energies of the individual particles of the system but not the energies of the entire system
internal energy
internal fertilization-fertilization of an egg by sperm that occurs inside the body of a female
internal fertilization
internal plastic flow the process by which glaciers flow slowly as grains of ice deform under pressure and slide over each other
internal plastic flow
internal respiration the exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
internal respiration
internal stimulus a stimulus that comes from inside the body
internal stimulus
International Date Line a line running from north to south through the Pacific Ocean where the date changes from one day to the next
International Date Line
Internet a large computer network that connects many local and smaller networks all over the world
interneuron a neuron located between the afferent neuron and the final neuron in a neural chain
internode the part of a plant stem between two consecutive nodes
interphase a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
interstellar matter the gas and dust located between the stars in a galaxy
interstellar matter
intertidal zone an area along ocean shorelines that lies between low and high water lines
intertidal zone
intestine the part of the digestive tract that goes from the opening of the stomach to the anus
intron a section of DNA that does not code for an amino acid and that is transcribed into RNA but is removed before it is translated
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the Earth's surface
intrusive igneous rock
inverse proportion the relationship between two variables whose product is constant
inverse proportion
inversion a reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome
invertebrate an animal that does not have a backbone
involuntary muscle a muscle whose movement cannot be controlled voluntarily, such as the cardiac muscle
involuntary muscle
ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive charge
ion channel a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass
ion channel
ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
ionic bond
ionic compound a compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction
ionic compound
ionic radius a measure of the effective range of an ion in a compound
ionic radius
ionization the process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or molecule, which gives the atom or molecule a net charge
Ionization the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of a solvent
ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion (abbreviation, IE)
ionization energy
ionosphere a region of the atmosphere that is above about 80 km and in which the air is ionized by solar radiation
iris the colored, circular part of the eye
iron meteorite a type of meteorite that is made of 90 percent iron and 10 percent nickel
iron meteorite
irregular galaxy a small galaxy that has no identifiable shape and that contains a great amount of dust and gas
irregular galaxy
island arc a chain of volcanic islands formed along continental masses
island arc
islets of Langerhans the masses of cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin
islets of Langerhans
isobar a line that is drawn on a weather map and that connects points of equal pressure
isograma line on a map that represents a constant or equal value of a given quantity
isolation a condition in which two populations cannot interbreed
isomer one of two or more compounds that have the same chemical composition but different structures
isopod a crustacean that has seven pairs of identical legs and no carapace; examples include sowbugs and pill bugs
isostasy a condition of gravitational and buoyant equilibrium between Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere
isostatic adjustment the vertical movement of part of Earth's crust to reach equilibrium between its weight and its buoyancy
isostatic adjustment
isothermal process a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant temperature
isothermal process
isotonic solution a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
isotonic solution
isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass)
isovolumetric process a thermodynamic process that takes place at constant volume so that no work is done on or by the system
isovolumetric process