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122 Cards in this Set

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the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F1 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
F2 generation
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
facilitated diffusion
an organism that can live with or without oxygen
facultative anaerobe
flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions
FAD
a tube through which eggs move from the ovary to the uterus
fallopian tube
the taxonomic category below the order and above the genus
family
widespread malnutrition and starvation in an area due to a shortage of food, usually caused by a catastrophic event
famine
a cluster of fibers, leaves, stems, or other plant parts
fascicle
a compound that is made up of glycerol and fatty acids and that is stored by plants and animals as a source of energy
fat
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
fatty acid
a break in a body of rock along which one block slides relative to another; a form of brittle strain
fault
a mountain that forms where faulting breaks Earth's crust into large blocks, which causes some blocks to drop down relative to other blocks
fault-block mountain
the surface of a fault along which rock masses move against each other
fault plane
a region of numerous, closely spaced faults
fault plane
waste materials that are expelled through the anus
feces
the return of information about a system or process that may effect a change in the system or process; the information that is returned
feedback
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color
felsic
the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
fermentation
an oxidation reaction that is catalyzed by enzymes in microorganisms in an environment lacking oxygen
fermentation reaction
a soil that can support the rapid growth of healthy plants
fertile soil
the number of births (usually per year) per 1,000 women of childbearing age (usually 15 to 44)
fertility rate
the union of a male and female gamete to form a zygote
fertilization
a compound that improves the quality of the soil to produce plants
fertilizer
a condition characterized by growth and developmental defects that affects some children born to women who drink alcohol during pregnancy (abbreviation, FAS)
fetal alcohol syndrome
the distance that wind blows across an area of the sea to generate waves
a developing human from seven or eight weeks after fertilization until birth
fetus
an elevation of the body temperature above the normal temperature
fever
a protein that forms a network of fibers during blood clotting
fibrin
a system of adventitious roots of approximately equal diameter that arise from the base of the stem of a plant
fibrous root system
any region or space in which a physical force is operative and influential
field
in flowers, the part of a stamen that supports the anther
filament
algae that have a threadlike structure composed of rows of cells joined end to end
filamentous algae
a type of nematode worm that causes elephantiasis in humans
filarial worm
of radiation received in a given period of time by people who work with radiation
film badge
an aquatic animal that traps food by filtering organic material from the surrounding water
filter feeder
the process of separating dissolved substances, such as impurities in the blood by passing them through a porous material; occurs between the glomerulus and the Bowman's capsule in the nephrons of a kidney
filtration
a membranous winglike structure that helps fish and other aquatic animals propel, balance, and guide their body
fin
a littoral inlet that has been formed by glacial ice and filled by the sea
fiord
a very bright meteor
fireball
a loose, permeable, granular material that is more than a year old and that is the transition between snow and glacier ice
firs
emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or who is sick
first aid
the process by which a nucleus splits into two or more fragments and releases neutrons and energy
fission
a type of asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two or more similar and complete parts
fission
a crack in a rock surface through which lava flows
fissure
a measurement of the ability of a species to respond to the pressures of natural selection; the ability of individuals to survive to propagate their genes
fitness
an innate behavior that is characteristic of certain species
fixed action pattern behavior
a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
in a flatworm, a cell that has flagella or cilia that move waste products through the body
flame cell
a primitive organism that is flat, has a soft body, and is symmetrical, such as a planarian, a fluke, or a tapeworm
flatworm
a muscle that bends a limb or other body part
a large, stiff feather that is on the wing or tail of a bird and that allows the bird to fly
flight feather
an area along a river that forms from sediments deposited when the river overflows its banks
floodplain
the reproductive structure of a flowering plant that usually consists of a pistil, stamens, petals, and sepals
flower
a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid
fluid
a parasitic flatworm of the class Trematoda
fluke
the absorption of energy by atoms, molecules, and other particles, followed by the immediate emission of visible electromagnetic radiation as the particles move to lower energy states
fluorescence
visible light emitted by a phosphor particle when it absorbs energy such as ultraviolet light
fluorescent light
the route followed by migratory birds
flyway
the point on the axis of a mirror or lens at which all incident parallel light rays converge or diverge
focal point
the location within Earth along a fault at which the first motion of an earthquake occurs
focus
the fixed point or points in the plane that determine a conic section
focus
a warm, dry wind that flows down the slopes of a mountain range
forehand
water vapor that has condensed very near the surface of Earth because air close to the ground has cooled
fog
a form of ductile strain in which rock layers bend, usually as a result of compression
fold
a mountain that forms when rock layers are squeezed together and uplifted
folded mountain
the bending of rock layers due to stress
folding
describes the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
foliated
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
foliation
describes a lichen or alga that has a leaflike appearance
foliose
a small, narrow cavity or sac in an organ or tissue, such as the ones on the skin that contain hair roots or the ones in the ovaries that contain the developing eggs
follicle
a gonadotropin that stimulates sperm production in the male and the growth and maturation of the ovarian follicles in the female (abbreviation, FSH)
follicle-stimulating hormone
the stage in which an immature egg completes its first meiotic division
the pathway of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms
food chain
a compartment that is surrounded by a membrane in the cytoplasm of a protozoan and that contains food particles
food vacuole
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
food web
an appendage that some invertebrates use to move; the lower part of a vertebrate's leg
foot
the rock below a fault plane
footwall
an order of sarcodine protozoans that have shells and are found in oceans
Foraminifera
an action exerted on a body in order to change the body's state of rest or motion; force has magnitude and direction
force
the collection, identification, and interpretation of physical evidence; often used in criminal investigations
forensic science
a representation of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas
formula equation
the sum of the average atomic masses of all atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion
formula mass
the collection of atoms corresponding to an ionic compounds formula such that the molar mass of the compound is the same as the mass of 1 mol of formula units
formula mass
the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
fossil
a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas
fossil fuel
a historical sequence of life indicated by fossils found in layers of Earth’s crust
fossil record
the process of separating components of different boiling points from a liquid mixture by vaporizing the liquid and passing the vapor through a fractionating column
fracture
in geology, a break in a rock, which results from stress, with or without displacement, including cracks, joints, and faults; also the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
fracture
an injury in which the tissue of a bone is broken
a long and narrow topographic feature that runs perpendicular to a mid-ocean ridge
fracture zone
a system for specifying the precise location of objects in space and time
frame of reference
a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame
frameshift mutation
the energy in a system that is available for work; a system's capacity to do useful work
freezing nuclei
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body
free fall
the change of state in which a liquid becomes a solid as heat is removed
freezing
any particle within a mass of super cooled water that will start growth of an ice crystal
freezing nuclei
the temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure; the temperature at which a liquid substance freezes
freezing point
the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a solution, which is directly proportional to the amount of solute present
freezing-point depression
the number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time; also the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
water that contains insignificant amounts of salts, as in rivers and lakes
a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
friction
a reef that grows against coastal bedrock and constitutes the shoreline; usually found in tropical coasts
fringing reef
the leaf of a fern or palm
the boundary between air masses of different densities and usually different temperatures
front
ice crystals that form when the dew point is below 0°C and water vapor directly enters the solid state
frost
a mature plant ovary; the plant organ in which the seeds are enclosed
fruit
a part of a plant or fungus that produces seeds or spores
fruiting body
describes a lichen that is shrub like
fruticose
a device that produces electricity chemically by combining hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air
fuel cell
a molecule that is made of spherically networked carbon-atom cages
fullerene
the phase of the moon during which the entire half of the moon facing the Earth is illuminated by the sun
full moon
the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part
function
the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
functional group
the lowest frequency of a complex wave
fundamental frequency
the largest ecological niche where an organism or species can live without competition
fundamental niche
a classification kingdom made up of non green, eukaryotic organisms that get food by breaking down organic matter and absorbing the nutrients, reproduce by means of spores, and have no means of movement
Fungi
a group of fungi whose sexual phase has not been discovered
fungi imperfect
an organism whose cells have nuclei, rigid cell walls, and no chlorophyll and that belongs to the kingdom Fungi
fungus
a protist that obtains its food from dead organic matter or from the body of another organism
Fungus like protist
an electrical device that contains a metal strip that melts when current in the circuit becomes too great
fuse
the process in which light nuclei combine at extremely high temperatures, forming heavier nuclei and releasing energy
fusion