Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/179

Click to flip

179 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bacillus
bacillus a rod-shaped bacterium
back emf
back emf the voltage that is produced in a circuit because of a changing current
background radiation
background radiation the nuclear radiation that arises naturally from cosmic rays and from radioactive isotopes in the soil and air
Bacteria
Bacteriain a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up of prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdom Eubacteria
bacteria
bacteria extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division (singular, bacterium)
bacteriophage
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
baleen
baleen the horny plates that hang from the mouth of some whales; used to filter out water but to retain solids when whales feed
ball-and-socket joint
ball-and-socket jointa joint in which the head of one bone is inserted into a hollow in another bone; examples include the hip and the shoulder
band gap
band gap the minimum energy separation between the highest occupied state and the lowest empty state
barb
barb a branch of a vane in the feather of a bird
barbule
barbule a branch of a barb in the feather of a bird
bark
bark a tissue of dead cells that forms on the exterior of woody plants for protection
barometer
barometer an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
barometric pressure
barometric pressure the pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere; also called air pressure or atmospheric pressure
barred spiral galaxy
barred spiral galaxy a type of spiral galaxy that has a bar of stars that runs through the galaxy's center
barrier island
barrier island a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore
barrier reef
barrier reef a type of coral reef that grows parallel to the shore of a continent or volcanic island but that is separated from the land by a lagoon
basal disk
basal disk an area on cnidarians, such as hydras, jellyfish, and corals, that enables them to adhere to surfaces
basal slip
basal slip the process that causes the ice at the base of a glacier to melt and the glacier to slide
base
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
base pairing rules
base pairing rules the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
base unit
base unit one of the fundamental units of measurement that describes length, mass, time, and other quantities and from which other units are derived
basidiocarp
basidiocarp the part of a basidiomycete that produces spores
basidiospore
basidiospore an asexual spore formed by a basidium
basidium
basidium a structure that produces asexual spores in basidiomycetes
batesian mimicry
batesian mimicry a change in the form or color of an organism to resemble another organism that is less likely to be attacked
batholith
largege pluton that, when exposed on Earth's surface, covers an area of at least 100 km2
bathyal zone
bathyal zone the region of the ocean at depths between 200 m and 4,000 m
bathyscaph
bathyscaph a self-propelled, free-moving submersible used for deep-ocean research
bathysphere
bathysphere a spherical submersible that remains attached to a research ship for communications and support
battery
battery a device that is made of one or more cells and that converts chemical energy into electrical energy
B cell
B cell a white blood cell that matures in bones and makes antibodies
beach
beach an area of the shoreline that is made up of deposited sediment
beat
beat the interference of waves of slightly different frequencies traveling in the same direction
bacillus
bacillus a rod-shaped bacterium
back emf
back emf the voltage that is produced in a circuit because of a changing current
background radiation
background radiation the nuclear radiation that arises naturally from cosmic rays and from radioactive isotopes in the soil and air
Bacteria
Bacteriain a modern taxonomic system, a domain made up of prokaryotes that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division; this domain aligns with the traditional kingdom Eubacteria
bacteria
bacteria extremely small, single-celled organisms that usually have a cell wall and that usually reproduce by cell division (singular, bacterium)
bacteriophage
bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria
baleen
baleen the horny plates that hang from the mouth of some whales; used to filter out water but to retain solids when whales feed
ball-and-socket joint
ball-and-socket jointa joint in which the head of one bone is inserted into a hollow in another bone; examples include the hip and the shoulder
band gap
band gap the minimum energy separation between the highest occupied state and the lowest empty state
barb
barb a branch of a vane in the feather of a bird
barbule
barbule a branch of a barb in the feather of a bird
bark
bark a tissue of dead cells that forms on the exterior of woody plants for protection
barometer
barometer an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
barometric pressure
barometric pressure the pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere; also called air pressure or atmospheric pressure
barred spiral galaxy
barred spiral galaxy a type of spiral galaxy that has a bar of stars that runs through the galaxy's center
barrier island
barrier island a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore
barrier reef
barrier reef a type of coral reef that grows parallel to the shore of a continent or volcanic island but that is separated from the land by a lagoon
basal disk
basal disk an area on cnidarians, such as hydras, jellyfish, and corals, that enables them to adhere to surfaces
basal slip
basal slip the process that causes the ice at the base of a glacier to melt and the glacier to slide
base
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
base pairing rules
base pairing rules the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
base unit
base unit one of the fundamental units of measurement that describes length, mass, time, and other quantities and from which other units are derived
basidiocarp
basidiocarp the part of a basidiomycete that produces spores
basidiospore
basidiospore an asexual spore formed by a basidium
basidium
basidium a structure that produces asexual spores in basidiomycetes
batesian mimicry
batesian mimicry a change in the form or color of an organism to resemble another organism that is less likely to be attacked
batholith
largege pluton that, when exposed on Earth's surface, covers an area of at least 100 km2
bathyal zone
bathyal zone the region of the ocean at depths between 200 m and 4,000 m
bathyscaph
bathyscaph a self-propelled, free-moving submersible used for deep-ocean research
bathysphere
bathysphere a spherical submersible that remains attached to a research ship for communications and support
battery
battery a device that is made of one or more cells and that converts chemical energy into electrical energy
B cell
B cell a white blood cell that matures in bones and makes antibodies
beach
beach an area of the shoreline that is made up of deposited sediment
beat
beat the interference of waves of slightly different frequencies traveling in the same direction
bedding plane
bedding plane
bedrock
the boundary between two stratified rock layers
behavior
bedrock the layer of rock beneath soil
bell curve
bell curve a symmetrical frequency curve
benign tumor
benign tumor an abnormal but noncancerous cell mass or growth
benthic zone
benthos
benthos organisms that live at the bottom of oceans or bodies of fresh water
benzene
benzene the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon
berm
berm a temporary bench, shelf, or terrace formed by the waves in a beach
Bernoulli's principle
Bernoulli's principle the principle that states that the pressure in a fluid decreases as the fluid's velocity increases
beta decay
beta decay the release of a negatively or positively charged electron from a nucleus of an atom, which changes the atomic number
beta particle
beta particle a charged electron emitted during certain types of radioactive decay, such as beta decay
biennial
biennial a plant that has a two-year life cycle
big bang theory
big bang theory the theory that all matter and energy in the universe was compressed into an extremely small volume that 13 billion to 15 billion years ago exploded and began expanding in all directions
bilateral symmetry
bilateral symmetry a condition in which two equal halves of a body mirror each other
bile
bile a fluid that is secreted by the liver and that emulsifies fats in digestion
bimetal thermometer
bimetal thermometer an instrument that is used to measure temperature and that consists of a bar that bends when heated or cooled because the bar is made of two strips of different metals
binary acid
binary acid an acid that does not contain oxygen, such as hydrofluoric acid
binary fission
binary fissiona form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
binary star
binary star a pair of stars that revolve around each other
binding energy
binding energy the energy that holds the protons together in the nucleus of an atom
binomial nomenclature
binomial nomenclature a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
biochemical pathway
biochemical pathway a series of chemical reactions that convert one biological material into another
biochemicals
biochemicals an organic compound that is made by living things
biodegradable
biodegradable capable of being broken down by biological processes, such as the action of bacteria
biodegradable material
biodegradable material a material that can be broken down by biological processes
biodiversity
biodiversity
Biodiversity Treaty
Biodiversity Treaty an international agreement aimed at strengthening national control and preservation of biological resources; associated with the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED or Earth summit) in 1992
biogenesis
biogenesis the theory that living organisms come only from other living organisms
biogeochemical cycle
the variety of organisms in a given area, the genetic variation within a population, the variety of species in a community, or the variety of communities in an ecosystem
biogeography
biogeography the study of the geographical distribution of living organisms and fossils on Earth
biological clock
biological clockan internal mechanism that controls biological rhythms, such as metabolic changes, sleep cycles, and photosynthesis
biological magnification
biogeochemical cycle the circulation of substances through living organisms from or to the environment
biological pest control
biological pest control the use of certain organisms by humans to eliminate or control pests
biological species
biological species a group of organisms than can reproduce only among themselves and that are usually contained in a geographic region
biological species concept
biological species concept the principle that defines a species as a group of organisms whose members can interbreed to produce offspring
biology
biology the scientific study of living organisms and their interactions with the environment
bioluminescence
bioluminescence the production of light by means of a chemical reaction in an organism
biomagnification
biomagnification the accumulation of pollutants at successive levels of the food chain
biomass
biomass plant material, manure, or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source
biomass fuel
biomass fuel plant material, manure, or any other organic matter that is used as an energy source
biome
biome
bioremediation
bioremediation the biological treatment of hazardous waste by natural or genetically engineered microorganisms
biosphere
biotic
biotic describes living factors in the environment
biotic factor
a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plant and animal communities
biotic potential
biotic potential the rate at which a population grows under optimal environmental conditions
bipedal
bipedal describes the ability to walk on two feet
bipedalism
the part of Earth where life exists; includes all of the living organisms on Earth
bipinnaria
bipinnaria the larva of starfish
bird of prey
bird of prey a bird that hunts and eats other animals
birth rate
birth rate the number of births that occur in a period of time in a given area
bituminous coal
bituminous coal soft coal
bivalve
bivalve an aquatic mollusk that has a shell divided into two halves connected by a hinge, such as a clam, oyster, or mussel
blackbody radiation
blackbody radiation the radiation emitted by a blackbody, which is a perfect radiator and absorber and emits radiation based only on its temperature
black hole
black hole an object so massive and dense that even light cannot escape its gravity
blade
blade the broad, flat portion of a typical leaf
blastocoel
blastocoel the central cavity of a blastula
blastocyst
blastocyst the modified blastula stage of mammalian embryos
blastopore
blastopore an opening that develops in the blastula
blastula
blastula the stage of an embryo before gastrulation
bleach
bleach a chemical compound used to whiten or make lighter, such as hydrogen peroxide or sodium hypochlorite
blight
blight a plant disease characterized by the browning of leaves, stems, and flowers
blood
blood the fluid that carries oxygen and nutrients to the body and that is made up of platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells, and plasma
blood alcohoconcentration
a measurement of the amount of alcohol in a person's blood (abbreviation, BAC)
blood pressure
blood pressure the force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries
blood type
blood type a classification of blood that depends on the type of antigen present on the surface of the red blood cell; A, B, AB, or O
body cavity
any cavity that houses organs, such as the thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cavity
body plan
body plan an animal’s shape, symmetry, and internal organization
body wave
body wavein geology, a seismic wave that travels through the body of a medium
boiling
boiling the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at the surface of the liquid at a specific temperature and pressure; occurs when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
boiling point
boiling point the temperature and pressure at which a liquid and a gas are in equilibrium
boiling-point elevation
boiling-point elevation the difference between the boiling point of a liquid in pure state and the boiling point of the liquid in solution; the increase depends on the amount of solute particles present
bolting
bolting the premature production of flowers and seeds, especially during the first year of a biennial plant
bolus
bolus a small lump of food that has been chewed and swallowed
bond
bond angle
bond angle the angle formed by two bonds to the same atom
bond energy
bond energy the energy required to break the bonds in 1 mol of a chemical compound
bond length
bond length the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy; the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
bone marrow
bone marrow soft tissue inside bones where red and white blood cells are produced
book lung
book lung in spiders and scorpions, an organ for respiration that has parallel folds that resemble the pages of a book
bora
bora a violent, cold, and dry wind that blows from the north or northeast
botany
botany the branch of biology that is the study of plants
Bowen's reaction series
Bowen's reaction seriesthe simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule the cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney that encloses the glomerulus and in which filtration takes place
Boyle's law
Boyle's law the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas increases as the pressure of the gas decreases and the volume of the gas decreases as the pressure of the gas increases
braided stream
braided streama stream or river that is composed of multiple channels that divide and rejoin around sediment bars
brain
brain the mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system
brainstem
brainstem the stemlike portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord and that maintains the necessary functions of the body, such as breathing and circulation
breaker
a heightened water wave that breaks into foam near the shore or against a rock or other object
breccia
breccia a clastic rock composed of angular fragments cemented together by minerals
bright-line spectrum
bright-line spectruma spectrum having the pattern of a series of lines, which results from emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms, ions, and molecules following excitations of their electrons
broad-spectrum antibiotic
broad-spectrum antibiotic an antibiotic that is effective against a wide range of bacteria
bronchiole
bronchiole a small air passage that branches from the bronchi within the lungs
bronchus
bronchus one of the two tubes that connect the lungs with the trachea
Brønsted-Lowry acid
a substance that donates a proton to another substance
Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction the transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
Brønsted-Lowry base
Bright Angel Shale a rock layer of the Grand Canyon deposited during the Cambrian period
brooding
brooding to sit on and cover eggs to keep them warm until they hatch; to incubate
bryophyte
a plant that has no vascular tissue and absorbs nutrients and water from the soil through rootlike hairs; examples include mosses and liverworts
bud
bud a shoot or flower that has immature leaves folded in the growing tip
budding
budding asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
bud scale
bud scale a modified leaf that forms a protective covering for a bud until it opens
buffer
buffer a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
buffered solution
a solution that can resist changes in pH when an acid or a base is added to it; a buffer
bulbourethral gland
bulbourethral gland one of the two glands in the male reproductive system that add fluid to the semen during ejaculation
buoyancy
buoyancy the upward force that acts on objects immersed in or floating on a liquid
buoyant force
the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid
butte
butte a flat-topped hill