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69 Cards in this Set

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Who thought matter was continuous? Was this person right?
Aristotle, no this person was not right.
Out of the two Greek philosphers, which one is more popular?
Who is Democratis? What did he believe? Was he correct?
Democritis is a philospher who believed matter was not continous?
Not as famous as his enemy philosopher
Who is John Dalton?
John Dalton was a thirteen year old school teacher who came up with "Dalton's Atomic Theory"
He stole lots of ideas from other chemists.
List the rules in Dalton's Atomic Theory.
1. All elements are made up of atoms.
2. All atoms of a particular element are identical.
3. In a chemical reaction, atoms combine chemically to form compounds, and the ratio is always small whole numbers.
4. In a chemical reaction, atoms may rearrange but are conserved.
There are four statements.
Who formed the Law of Conservation of Matter? Explain this person's backround.
Antoinne LaVoisier, a French chemist who was executed during the French Revolution because of his position as a tax collector.
To quote Mr. Hoag "a head chopper offer" is somehow involved in this person's backround.
What law(s) did Joseph Proust come up with? The law(s) states what?
Proust's Law of Definite Composition or law of Depth and Proportions. This states that in a chemical reaction, atoms combine chemically to form small, whole number ratios. ex: H2O, NaCl
This is just one law, but it has two common names.
What does Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions state?
This law states that atoms that combine to form compounds may have more than one combining ratio, but the ratio is always small, whole numbers. Ex: 2:16 H2O, 1:8 H2O2, 2:32, 1:16
The law's name gives the theory away.
Do the compounds H20 and H2O2 exist? Prove mathematically.
Use the D.C.M.D. Hy2/Ox=2/16=1.25, Hy2/Ox2=2/32=0.625, 0.125/0.625=2.
Apply Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions. Ex: N2O and NO, N2O=28/16=1.75, NO=14/16=.875, 1.75/.875=2
Who is the "Electron Guy"? What was the special model he made called and why?
J.J. Thompson made the atomic model called Plum Pudding. It was called Plum Pudding because the model consisted of a positive sphere that was neutralized by negative particles in it that resembled plum pudding, hence it's name....Plum Pudding.
His model closely resembles a British dessert.
What are ions? What are the types of ions?
An atom that gains or loses electrons. The two types are: cations) an atom that loses electrons and becomes a +ion, anions) atoms that gain electrons to become -ions.
An ion is determined using electrons.
What law(s) did Joseph Proust come up with? The law(s) states what?
Proust's Law of Definite Composition or law of Depth and Proportions. This states that in a chemical reaction, atoms combine chemically to form small, whole number ratios. ex: H2O, NaCl
This is just one law, but it has two common names.
What does Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions state?
This law states that atoms that combine to form compounds may have more than one combining ratio, but the ratio is always small, whole numbers. Ex: 2:16 H2O, 1:8 H2O2, 2:32, 1:16
The law's name gives the theory away.
Do the compounds H20 and H2O2 exist? Prove mathematically.
Use the D.C.M.D. Hy2/Ox=2/16=1.25, Hy2/Ox2=2/32=0.625, 0.125/0.625=2.
Apply Dalton's Law of Multiple Proportions. Ex: N2O and NO, N2O=28/16=1.75, NO=14/16=.875, 1.75/.875=2
Who is the "Electron Guy"? What was the special model he made called and why?
J.J. Thompson made the atomic model called Plum Pudding. It was called Plum Pudding because the model consisted of a positive sphere that was neutralized by negative particles in it that resembled plum pudding, hence it's name....Plum Pudding.
His model closely resembles a British dessert.
What are ions? What are the types of ions?
An atom that gains or loses electrons. The two types are: cations) an atom that loses electrons and becomes a +ion, anions) atoms that gain electrons to become -ions.
An ion is determined using electrons.
What is the cathode ray table experiment? What is a cathode ray? Who was it conducted by?
The cathode ray experiment was an experiment that sent a stream of electrons or negatice particles across a bottle that reacted to a positive charge when placed next to it. This experiment was conducted by J.J. Thompson.
Think the "Electron Guy"
What was the paddle wheel experiment? What did it prove? Who conducted it?
The paddle wheel experiment, conducted by J.J. Thompson, proved that electrons have mass when a paddle wheel that was placed inside of a bottle made contact with the glowing stream of particles being surged through it.
The cathode ray table experiment needed to occur before this experiment was conducted.
Who was Robert Millikan and what did he do?
Robert was an American chemist that calculated the exact charge of an electron using his oil can experiment.
Kan and can
Who was he Gold Foil Experiment conducted by and what did it prove?
The Gold Foil Experiment was conducted by Lord Ernest Rutherford and proved that atoms have a small dense nucleus by shooting them through a wall of gold foil.
bing!bing!bing!bing!boing!bing!bing!bing!bing!boing!
What are Alpha Particles?
Alpha Particles are very small positive charged particles.
They were involved in Rutherford's experiment.
What model treats electrons as a wave?
The Quantum Mechanical Model treats electrons as a wave.
Think of the electic measurements.
What has the mass inside a nucleus?
Protons and neutrons have the mass inside an nucleus.
Not one but two.
What are all masses based on? What's the equation?
All masses are based on carbon's mass, hydrogen 1/12*12=1
The atomic symbol is C.
Who was Neils Bohr and what did he create?
Neils Bohr is a Danish physicist that produced the Bohr Model of the atom. The model has a positive circle in the middle of a ring charged with negative electrons.
Basis for atom today.
What does AMU stand for?
Atomic Mass Units
_t_m_c M_ss _n_ts
What model treats electrons as a wave?
The Quantum Mechanical Model treats electrons as a wave.
Think of the electic measurements.
What has the mass inside a nucleus?
Protons and neutrons have the mass inside an nucleus.
Not one but two.
What are all masses based on? What's the equation?
All masses are based on carbon's mass, hydrogen 1/12*12=1
The atomic symbol is C.
Who was Neils Bohr and what did he create?
Neils Bohr is a Danish physicist that produced the Bohr Model of the atom. The model has a positive circle in the middle of a ring charged with negative electrons.
Basis for atom today.
What does AMU stand for?
Atomic Mass Units
_t_m_c M_ss _n_ts
What is the atomic mass?
The atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
_ +_=nucleus
What is the atomic number?
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
_+neutrons=nucleus
What is the AVERAGE atomic mass?
The average atomic mass is of all the isotopes in an element.
atomic mass+_=Average atomic mass
What is Sn+2? Is it an ion? If so, what kind? What's its atomic number? What's its mass number? How many electrons are there?
Sn+2 is an ex. of a tin cation. It's atomic # is 50 which is the number of protons. The mass number is 119-50=69 neutrons. It has 48 electrons.
Use atomic # and mass #.
Define isotope.
Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but different number neutrons.
This definition involves neutrons.
What is the atomic mass?
The atomic mass is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
_ +_=nucleus
What is the atomic number?
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
_+neutrons=nucleus
What is the AVERAGE atomic mass?
The average atomic mass is of all the isotopes in an element.
atomic mass+_=Average atomic mass
What is Sn+2? Is it an ion? If so, what kind? What's its atomic number? What's its mass number? How many electrons are there?
Sn+2 is an ex. of a tin cation. It's atomic # is 50 which is the number of protons. The mass number is 119-50=69 neutrons. It has 48 electrons.
Use atomic # and mass #.
Define isotope.
Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but different number neutrons.
This definition involves neutrons.
What are examples of Cl isotopes?
Cl-34, Cl-35, Cl-36, Cl-37, Cl-38
Cl-?
What are hydrogen's three isotopes?
Protium, Deuterium, and Tritium
-ium....
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Protium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Protium has 1 proton, ) neutrons, 1 electron, and makes up 99% of hydrogen.
protons= electrons, neutrons= protons or neutrons -1.
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Deuterium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Deuterium has 1 proton, 1 neutron, and 1 electron, and makes up .99% of hydrogen.
# of protons= # of neutrons=# 0f electrons, percentage is the same as Protium just has a decimal in front of it
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does Tritium have? What percentage of it makes up hydrogen?
Tritium has 1 proton, 1 neutron, 1 electron, and makes up approximately .01% of hydrogen.
# of protons=# of electrons, # of neutrons= # of protons or electrons + 1.
Element X has 3 isotopes.
X-10 has an abundance of 20%
X-11 has an abundance of 20%
X-12 has an abundance of 60%
Calculate the average atomic mass.
10 * 20/100= 2
11 * 20/100=2.2
12 * 60/100=7.2
2+2.2+7.2=11.4 AMU
% of abunduncy * mass of the isotope
What is Avogadro's number?
6.02 * 10_23.
October 23. 2006, mole day
What is the molar mass?
The molar mass is 1 mole of any substance that's equal to its mass. Ex: 1 mole Li = 6.9g, 1 mole carbon= 12
Elements' mass are measured in moles.
How does one calculate the mass %? Give an example.
The formula is partial mass/total mass * 100. Ex: Find the mass % of sodium in NaCl? 23/58.5 * 100 = 39%.
similar to % error formula
What is electromagnetic radiation?
Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that has wavelike propertiel as it travels through space.
What does the ocean make?
What are the the six types of waves in decreasing amount of longest to shortest?
Radiowaves, microwaves, infrared waves, ultra violet waves, x-rays, and gamma waves.
RMIUXG
What is the order of lowest frequency to highest frequency wavse on the visible light spectrum?
Red, orange, yellow, gree, blue, indigo, violet
ROY G. BIV
How are frequencies and wavelengths related?
Shorter the wavelength higher the frequency and visa-versa.
s=h, l=l
What does the lambda represent?
The lambda represents the wavelength, or the distance between two crests on a wave.
Lambs are the color of sea foam.
What is the amplitude?
The amplitude is the height of the wave.
The amps amp up the wave.
What is the frequency?
The frequency is the number of wavelengths that pass a certain point in one second.
The higher the freqency the shorter the wavelength and visa-versa.
What is frequency measured in?
Frequency is measured in hertz.
OUCH MY ARM HURTS!
What is the speed of light measured in? What is the standard number for all speed of light equations?
3.0*10_8 m/s
This number is the same for all.
What represents the wavelength? What is it measured in?
The lambda represents the wavelength and is measured in meters.
The lamb was named Mete.
Who is Max Planck and what did he state?
Max Planck was a chemist that stated energy was not continuous and that it's only found in energy bundles called quantum.
Think about Democritis's theory.
What is Plank's constant? What is the height?
E=VH, H=6.63*10_-34
energy=_*_
Define law of conservation of mass.
The law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical or physical reactions.
Antoinne LaVoisier
Define law of multiple proportions.
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
13 year old school teacher
Define law of definite proportions.
The fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound is called the law of definite proportions.
Think about the name.
What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties if that element.
Think of the Bohrs model.
What is a nuclide?
A nuclide is a general term for any isotope of any element.
This term is related to isotopes.
What is a mole?
A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.
This tern is related to carbon-12.
What is the definition of Avogadro's number?
The number of particles in exactly one mole of a substance.
particles
What is name of Homer's Simpson's favorite beer?
Duff
Moe's