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42 Cards in this Set

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The liver reviews venous blood directly from:
1. spleen
2. pancreas
3. intestine
What is Glisson's Capsule?
A simple squamous epithelium covering the dense, irregular connective tissue of the liver. It is loosely attached except at the porta hepatis
The bulk of the liver is composed of uniform:
Parenchymal cells (i.e. the hepatocytes)
From which arteries does the liver receive oxygenated blood? What percentage of the total volume of blood is this?
From the left hepatic and right hepatic artery. (25%)
From which vessel does the liver receive nutrient-rich blood?
Portal vein
From which aspect of the liver does the blood exit - what is the name of this vessel?
The hepatic veins on the posterior aspect
From which vessel does the gall bladder leave the liver?
Via the porta hepatis by way of the right and left hepatic ducts
There are many endocrine secretions from hepatocytes - including albumin fibronectin transferrin, prothrombin, lipoproteins - but what is the main exocrine function of the liver - what does it make?
Bile
What are the four functional groups of the liver?
Connective Tissue, Large Vessels, Sinusoidal Capillaries, Hepatocytes
The hepatocytes and sinusoids are surround by what?
Reticular fibers composed of collagen, typeIII
The reticular network gives support to:
They are essential for this vascular characteristic:
hepatic parenchyma. To keep the the vascularature open and blood flowing around parenchyma
What are the five major vessel systems in the liver?
1. Hepatic artery
2. Hepatic portal vein
3. Central veins
4. Bile ducts
5. Lymphatic vessels
What is the Portal Triad?
1. Branches of hepatic artery
2. Hepatic portal vein
3. Bild duct
*Lymphatic vessels are also associated
What is the main purpose of the sinusoids?
To freely allow the exchange of substance between the blood and hepatocytes.
Sinusoids are made of two cell types:
1. Endothelial Cels
2. Sinusoidal Macrophages (Kupffer cells - possible involved in break down of RBCs)
What is the key feature of the endothelium lining the sinusoids? What does this allow?
Very fenestrated. Allows for easy transfer of substrates to hepatocytes and endocrine secretions.
Where does the exchange of substances between blood and hepatocytes take place?
In the perisinusoidal Space of Disse
What are the cells commonly found in the perisinusoidal space (aka Space of Disse) that contain large lipid droplets and a major site of vitamine A storage?
Stellate Cells
What is a functional unit of the liver?
Lobule
What is the structure of the classic lobule?
1. Shape
2. Associated vessels
1. Hexagonal
2. Single central vein at core and portal triad at each of its six corners.
In the lobule, oxygenated nutrient/toxin rich blood perfuses from the ? to the ?
From terminal vessel to the central vein.
What is the liver acinus?
It is correlated with blood perfusion, metabolic activity and liver pathology.
What does the hepatocyte cell face?
Two faces the peri-sinusoidal space and for faces face other hepatocytes and the bile canaliculi.
Describe the nucleus of hepatocytes?
They are bincucleated and tetraploid (contain 4n DNA)
What is Hepatic Cirrhosis and what two things can cause it?
Necrosis caused by viral or alcoholism.
What are the three responses to hepatic necrosis?
1. Collapse of hepatic lobule organization
2. Nodular regroth of hepatocytes
3. Formation of diffuse and extensive fibrous septa
(fibrosis)
Liver fibrosis results from an increase in activity of this cell:
Stellate cells around necrotic hepatic cells.
When stellate cells respond to necrosis of hepatic cells, how do they respond? What does this result in?
They respond by increasing the deposition of collagen type I and III which destry the architecutre of the liver and prevent normal hepatic blood flow. Results in hepato-cellular failure and portal hypertension.
What liver cells resemble stem cells? They are bipotential - what does this mean?
Oval cells. They can differentiate to form both biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes.
Bile consists of: (5 points)
1. Water and electrolytes
2. Cholesterol and phospholipids
3. Bile salts/acids
4. Bile pigments
5. Bilirubin
What deteoxifies bilirubin?
Bile pigments
What causes jaundice color?
Bilirubin
Is bile secretion an energy dependent processes?
Probably - the bile canaliculi contain ATPases
The bile canaliculi join together to form small terminal ductules called:
Canals of Herring
What are bile ducts made of? Describe their morphology
Biliary epithelial cells. They are cuboidal epithelium that forms a ductule.
In what direction does bile flow with respect to blood the central vein and portal triad?
Opposite direction - away from the central vein toward the portal triad.
Upstream of the common bile duct are these two ducts:
Cystic (gallbladder) and hepatic (liver)
Which has more concentrated bile coming through it: Hepatic or Cystic?
Cystic
What causes the gallbladder to contract?
Lipid in the duodenum induces secretion of CCK.
The mucosa of gallbladder is composed of this type of cell:
What do they resemble? What are they primarily responsible for doing?
Simple columnar epithelium that closely resemble absorptive cells of intestine. They concentrate bile by absorbing wather.
What is Cholelithiasis?
Gallstones
What are gallstones made of?
Concentrated cholesterol (85%) or bilirubin (which nucleates to form a stone)