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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name some pro-inflammatory cytokines released by macrophages in response to bacteria
TNF, IL-1, IL-6
what causes the fever and malaise of influenza?
IFN-alpha
how does IFN-alpha limit the spread of a viral infection between cells?
inhibits viral replication
how does TNF affect myocardial contractility?
TNF depresses cardiac function
what is the source of acute phase proteins?
liver
which type of chronic inflammation is characterised by substantial numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes?
chronic granulomatous inflammation
what type of chronic inflammation is characterised by large numbers of neutrophils?
chronic suppurative inflammation
how is mycobacterium tuberculosis spread?
aerosol droplets
what happens to mycobacteria bacilli after being deposited in the terminal alveoli?
phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages
apart from alveolar macrophages and recruited macrophages, what phagocytoses mycobacteria in the alveoli?
lung dendritic cells
where do the dendritic cells containing mycobacteria migrate?
hilar lymph nodes
which macrophage-derived cytokine directs CD4 T cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-gamma?
IL-12
what is the greatest single risk factor for TB?
HIV
what is the role of IL-2 in mycobacterial immunity?
it is required for the clonal expansion of antigen specific T cells
what is the liftime risk of reactivation of TB is someone who is HIV negative?
10%
what fraction of the world's population is infected with TB?
1/3
what percentage of people infected with TB will develop latent TB?
90%
t/f... people with asymptomatic TB infection can transmit the infection to others
false
t/f... medicare is only available for Australian citizens
false, available for citizens of Aus and New Zealand, permanent residents, those who have applied for permanent residency
which applicants for temporary or permanent residency must have a chest x-ray?
those 11 years and older
what is inflammation?
the reaction of vascularised living tissues to local injury or infection, characterised by the movement of fluid and leukocytes from the blood into the affected tissue
what are the most prominent cells in acute inflammation?
neutrophils
what is exudate?
oedema fluid with high protein content, resulting from increased endothelial permeability to plasma proteins in inflammation
what is pus?
inflammatory exudate containing viable and dead neutrophils, cell debris, viable and dead micro-organisms, protein, lipid, DNA, etc
what do integrins bind to?
endothelial-associated adhesion molecules
what is chronic inflammation?
inflammation of prolonged (weeks to years) duration, in which active inflammation, tissue destruction and tissue repair are proceeding simultaneously
which type of chronic inflammation has three subtypes?
chronic granulomatous inflammation
what is an abscess?
a circumscribed collection of pus within solid tissue
what is an ulcer?
a local defect, or excavation, on the surface of an organ or tissue, produced by the sloughing off of necrotic inflammatory tissue
what are the three types of chronic granulomatous inflammation?
immune type (e.g. TB)
unknown origin (sarcoidosis)
foreign body granuloma (older types of surgical suture)
what are the features of a granuloma?
fibrous tissue surrounding fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelioid cells and giant cells
what is the result of fusion of epithelioid cells?
giant cell
what are the four stages of healing?
haemostasis
inflammation
proliferation
remodelling
what are the major differences between first and second intention healing?
first intention - margins can attach, margins are sutured, no infection
second intention - margins not ready to attach, infection, margins are devitalised: bruised or necrotic
what stimulates the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in remodelling?
TGF-beta, PDGF
what is the strength of a scar compared to normal skin?
70%
what is a malignant neoplasm originating from the epithelium called?
carcinoma
what is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin called?
sarcoma
which mode of spread is typical of sarcomas?
haematogenous spread
what is the mechanism of metastasis leading to an ovarian tumour spreading through the peritoneal cavity?
transcoelomic seeding across a body cavity
which mechanism of metastasis involves intra-epidermal spread of tumour cells?
intraepithelial Pagetoid spread