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52 Cards in this Set

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Constitutional monarchy
powers of the ruler are restricted... eventually, his/her powers will weaken so much that it will just become tradition to maintain the monarchy
Totalitarianism
absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution. The constitution states that the government has to obey laws; however, the laws are usually ignored
Despotism
government by an absolute ruler unchecked by a constitutional limit... despots rule with abuse
Socialism
ownership and control of the means of production and distribution vested in the community as a whole (socialism is an economic philosophy; not a political one)
Fascism
system led by dictator having complete power, forcefully suppressing the opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry commerce etc. fascist nations use the military to run their nation. they are often racist, xenophobic, and sexist
dicatorship
absolute, imperious, or overbearing power or control
Democracy
government by the people… power expressed directly by them in a free electoral system
Monarchy
supreme power is held by a single person who feels they are ruling with divine right
Absolute monarchy
monarchy that is not limited or restrained by laws or constitution
Theocracy
god is the supreme ruler. The authority is interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities
Communism
ownership and control; tyranny
Anarchy
state of society without government or law
Liberalism
advocates freedom of the individual with non violence and a parlimentry system of government
European demographics
2% clergy
2% nobility
95% peasantry
1% jews
2 effects of the crusades
-helped define the popes power over the rest of the bishops
-pissed off the nobility because they felt the church had no right to intervene in secular affairs
European Demographics
2% clergy
2% nobility
95% peasantry
1% jews
Effects of the crusades
-Helped define the pope’s power over the rest of the bishops
-Pissed off the nobility because they felt that the church had no right to intervene in secular affairs
Jewish jobs in medieval Europe
-itenerate salesmen
-money lenders
Ways the jews (and others) were abused
-Edward I and Louis IX borrowed money from the jews and then expelled them so they wouldn’t have to pay them back
-the Spanish launched the inquisition to rid spain of infidels
-catholics used the jews to show how disbelievers suffered
-on the way to the holy land (crusades), Christians killed many jews
2 major reasons to explain why europe was superior (the first to globalize) to all other civilizations
-europeans were the first to have universities. (universities were good because they taught people to think)
-europeans were the first to take advantage of consumer products (supply and demand: tobacco, sugar, etc) and provide them to their citizens.
First true trade route of european globalization
ASIA(BUY SPICES) -> EUROPE(SELL SPICES FOR MONEY) -> AFRICA(BUY SLAVES) -> AMERICAS(SELL SLAVES FOR CONSUMER ITEMS) -> AND BACK TO EUROPE TO SELL CONSUMER ITEMS FOR MONEY
5 products that led to European consumer sales in the 17th century
-fine sugar
-tea
-coffee
-opium
-tobacco
4 aspects of crisis in the 17th century
-war
-religious strife
-economic depression
-peasant revolts
Rational that monarchs used to expand their power
-essential to meet emergencies and quell disorders
3 missions of the monarchs
-to wage war
-levy taxes
-generally make law as they saw fit
2 things that louis XIV did for france
-developed a centralized bureaucracy
-developed professional army
-developed state-directed economy
2 limitations on louis XIV’s power
-financial independence of some provinces
-the nobility’s tradition of freedom of taxation
Austrian and prussian monarch
won absolutist control over standing armies, permanent taxes, and legislative bodies. They did not question the underlying social and economic relationships
Russian monarch
long history of powerful princes. Tsar peter the great succeeded in tightening up russia’s traditional absolutism and modernizing it; however the costs of wars weighed heavily in the triumph of absolutism
Things that tsar peter the great did
-he reformed the army
-reformed the bureaucracy
-reformed the defense industry
Holland monarch
prospered under a republican confederation of separate provinces
3 aspects of english monarch
-power was divided between king and parliament, with parliament enjoying the greater share.
-government was to be based on the rule of law
-liberties of English people were to be made explicit in written form; the bill of rights
4 ways of how the scientific revolution and enlightenment effected Europe
-decisive breakthroughs in astronomy and physics
-impact of new scientific knowledge on intellectual life (implied critical thinking)
-used new reasoning to search for useful reforms
-philosophies succeeded in shaping an emerging public opinion and spreading their radically new world-view
2 things that African kingdoms and societies represented
-economic diversity
-political diversity
Comparison of 4 African regions
-western african societies: largely muslim
-ethiopia: largely christian
-southeastern city-states: largely muslim with mercantile culture
-eastern societies: economies were tied to trade in the Indian ocean
Reason that Africa never progressed
-slave trade greatly delayed population growth
Characteristics of the ottoman empire
muslim ottomans captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. Their income was based mostly on commerce and their economy and population was very diverse
Superiority of the ottoman empire was based on...
-Strong military organization
-their enemies disunity
3 things that the downfall of the ottoman empire was based on...
-economic issues
-demographic issues
-political issues connected with the imperial succession
Characteristics of shi’ite persia
shah abbas recovered from the mongol devastation by leading his country to a period of prosperity and artistic creativity
3 things that the superiority of shi'ite persia was based on...
-military success
-strong domestic industry based on carpet weaving
-the talents of hundreds of Chinese immigrants
Characteristics of the mughul empire
wealthiest of all the middle eastern societies
Downfall of the mughal empire was based on...
-european nations’ demand for Indian textiles
- their inability to resolve their domestic differences (hindus vs muslims) led to british control
2 dynasties that dominated china
-ming dynasty
-qing dynasty
Characteristics of qing dynasty
extended empire and produced commodities for the europeans
Commodities that the qing dynasty produced for the europeans
-tea
-porcelain
-silk
Characteristics of korea
economy based on slaves. its downfall was the large invasion from japan.
3 things that the Tokugawa produced in japan
-steady economic growth
-improved agricultural technology
-samurai became peaceful city dwellers and civil bureaucrats
Downfall of japan was based on...
the wealth of business classes grew and the samurai fell into debt
Role that the French revolution played in shaping society
reflected a social structure based increasingly on wealth and achievement rather than on tradition and legal privileges
Ideologies that the french revolution promoted
-liberalism
-assertive nationalism
-radical democratic republicamism
-embryonic socialism
-self-conscious conservatism
-electoral competition
-legislative assemblies
-mass politics
-political options
-alternative visions for the future
6 specifics on how the french revolution inspired the world
-sansculottes democratic republicanism
-egalitarian ideology
-embryonic socialism
-republicans
-democrats
-earily socialists