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54 Cards in this Set

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Non-Shivering Thermogenesis
Babies have this, it's how they generate heat for themselves through brown fat between their shoulderblads. Yellow fat with red blood = brown color of the fat. It produces ATP. 40% ATP, 60% given off as heat.
Shivering Thermogenesis
Adults don't have brown fat, we generate heat for ourselves by shivering (wich uses ATP for muscle contractions. Then we make more ATP and make heat!
Why is smoke from a fire attracted to you wheverer you sit?
Because the smoke is pulled towards your body because of the heat radiating from the top of your head. This illustrations the concept of radiation.
Heat leaving the body. Can be shown by Infrared Cameras. Happens when human hotter than the surrounding area. To keep ourselves from burning up when producing ATP.
Losing heat through air blowing heat off of the body. To keep ourselves from burning up when producing ATP.
Losing heat through touching a cooler surface. Heat transfers and warms up the cool surface. To keep ourselves from burning up when producing ATP.
Heat lost as water through sweating. To keep ourselves from burning up when producing ATP.
Kwasiorkor / Marasmus
protein malnutrition. Means displaced or golden child. Marasmus is the phase 2, not enough caloric intake in general. 50 million children dying each year. 7 lbs of fish meal per year would cure it.
Nitrogen Balance

Positive Nitrogen Balance
Nigrogen IN is greater than Nitrogen OUT.
Desireable in children, elderly, illl, recovering from illness, pregnant
Nitrogen Balance

Negative Nitrogen Balance
Nitrogen OUT greater than Nitrogen IN

Only desireable for patients with kidney disease
What is the top source of nitrogen?
How would you create a positive nitrogen balance ina patient?
Increase Protein intake.
How do you make pyruvic acid out of glycerol?
It just needs to be switched around a little, since they are both 3C.
What is a proton donor?
An acid. If they donate the proton they end in ate (i.e. pyruvate). Before proton is donated they would be called acids (i.e. pyruvic acid).
What is the butter/steak metaphor for lipoproteins?
Butter is not dense. Steak is dense. The more protein on a lipoprotein, the more density. So low density would be more fat, and high density would be more protein.
Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.
Has protein and fat in different degrees.
What is the order of the lipoproteins from least dense to most dense?
VLDL (Very Low Density), IDL (Intermediate Density), LDL (Low Density), HDL (High Density - 2 varieties High Cholesterol HDL and Low Cholesterol HDL), Chylomicron.
What is the healthy amount of cholesterol in the blood?
Less than 150.
A lipoprotein too big for the bloodstream, it gets in through the "back door", the lymphatic system (sewer) through the thraocic duct. It puts it into a big vein that takes it off to the brain, heart, left arm. Venous system is a low pressure system. Eventually the blood finds its way to the arteries/capillaries. Lipoprotein lipase (enzyme) breaks it up in the capillaries
Lipoprotein lipase
An enzyme capable of breaking up a lipoprotein.
What are the four choices for where chylomicrons wind up after being broken down by lipoprotein lipase in the capillaries?
It goes to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, storage, or send to liver to be reused.
Very Low Density Lipoproteins. Liver cells synthesize a VLDL that delivers triglycerides to peripheral tissues. Lipoprotein lipase in endothelial cells breaks down these triglycerides and releases fatty acids and monoglycerides that diffuse into the surrounding tissues.
"Fat Taxis"-drops off "fat" passenger to Lipoprotein Lipase in capillaries/FAs and Monoglycerides released for use by tissue cells
IDL Intermediate Density Lipoprotein is the "empty taxi" that remains after VLDL "fat taxi" drops off a bunch of the fat (passenger). It returns to the liver where it is absorbed and rearranged/converted to an LDL (added cholesterol).
Low Density Lipoproteins are the "Cholesterol Taxis" that circulate to peripheral cells/tissues, crosses the endothelium and is absorbed by cells through endocytosis. Chol. is used in cell processes (membrane synthesis, steroids, hormones, estrogen, testosterone, etc. Excess diffuses back into circulation/bloodstream. In the plasma, chol. is absorbed by HDL next. This is the blood cholesterol "bad cholesterol" that doctors want us to keep LOW.
High Density Lipoprotein - Low Cholesterol variety - Empty Garbage truck that's produced by the liver. Picks up the excess cholesterol that diffuses out of cells and it turns into a high cholesterol HDL (full garbage truck) which goes back to the liver to have the cholesterol extracted. Some goes back out in LDL, some excreted in bile salts (green stuff in intestines-makes feces yellowish/greenish).
What happens if there's too much cholesterol for the HDLS?
The cholesterol builds up as plaque on the arteries which hardens them and causes them to become brittle (spring a leak with too much blood pressure like a dried out garden hose). This is the so-called "good" cholesterol that doctors say should be Higher.
What is the result of too much protein in the diet?
Hyperammonemia - elevated ammonia NH3 levels in the blood. Can alter body pH toward the base/alkaline.
What is a Zwitter ion?
Any compound which has a net zero charge is called a zwitter ion. Among amino acids, neutral amino acids have net zero charge at pH 7 because there is a carboxyl group (acid) and a amino group (think amino/ammonia) NH2.
What coenzymes must be present for beta oxidation to occur?
FAD, NAD and CoA (along with the fatty acids and the enzymes, of course)
How can you get rid of 2 ammonias?
By getting rid of a carbon and an oxygen. The resultant waste product is urea.
What is urea?
A the most abundant waste product in the blood and urine. A nitrogenous waste produced from two ammonia molecules and a carbon dioxide.
What is the chemical symbol for Ammonia?
What is deamination?
Removing an amino group from an organic molecule (i.e. protein). A step in the catabolism of an amino acid. Think "dea"mination, "deadly". Very dangerous. Produces ammonia.
What happens if you give a baby cow's milk?
Cows milk has too much protein, you have to water it down to feed it to the baby or else it will kill the baby because it would be too high in protein (Romulus and Remus would never have survived the she wolf's milk, let alone the she wolf herself.)
Aminotransfer. It is the reaction between an amino acid and an alpha-keto acid. The amino group is transferred from the former to the latter; this results in the amino acid being converted to the corresponding α-keto acid, while the reactant α-keto acid is converted to the corresponding amino acid (if the amino group is removed from an amino acid, an α-keto acid is left behind).
Is the human a natural vegetarian or only a meat eater?
We are omnivores. We need proteins (amino acids) and plants/vegetables (sugars, carbohydrates), and vitamins and minerals and fats.
What is an R group?
The group in an amino acid that is the functional group/side chain that is hooked up to the side of the carbon that doesn't have the acetyl group or the Amino Group.
How many Amino Acids do humans need and what are they determined by?
The R group determines which Amino Acid it is...there are 20.
How many Amino Acids are nonessential, and what does that mean?
That means we can make them ourselves, internally. There are 10 that are nonessential.
How many essential Amino Acids are there for adults and how many for children? What does essential mean?
Essential means we must get them from our diet. There are 8 essential Amino Acids for adults and 10 for children.
Extra Credit: What are the essential amino acids?
Most Vegetarians Take THE PILL. Methionine, Valine, Tryptophane (think "turkey"), Threonine, Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine
What are some of the "problems" with proteins?
They can be toxic in certain cases (i.e. PKU) and the amino group can turn into ammonia when the amino group is cut loose and picks up a hydrogen.
What would be left of a protein after the amino group is removed?
The carbon would still have the -COOH (carboxyl group) attached and the R group attached, but would have a hydrogen on the last place that could accept a carbon bond. After deamination, a ketoacid is created. Only the liver can "get away" with this.
How does the body make its own amino acids (as in the case of non-essential amino acids?)
Through transamination. The H from a ketoacid is swapped with the NH2 from an amino acid and then there's a new ketoacid and a new amino group. Any cell can do this. We then burn them for fuel.
Why can ketoacids be dangerous to the body?
They can affect the PH of the body.
How does the amount of energy coming from proteins compare to the amount of energy coming from carbohydrates and the amount of energy coming from fats?
Carbs and proteins yield the same amount of energy. Fats yield 1.5 times as much.
What is the least desirable fuel source if choosing between fats, carbs, and proteins?
Protein is the least desireable fuel.
What body processes happen in the absorptive state (full belly/while tings are being digested).
Think "payday"
Protein synthesis
How long after a big meal will the body be in an absorptive state?
4 hours after a big meal. So if we are in the absorptive state for three meals a day, it's about 12 hours a day.
What body processes happen in the post-absorptive state? (starvation)
glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, lioplysis, glycogenolysis, proteolysis, increased urea production, lowering of body PH, and increase in KA or Ketone production.
What are the fat soluble vitamins good for?
A for vision, D for bones, E for skin and spermatogenesis, K is koagulation (clotting)
What are H2O soluble vitamins good for?
tissue repair, hematopoiesis, blood formation, protein synthesis.
What are zinc and magnesium good for?
zinc is used for immunity, magnesium is a cofactor.