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476 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
0.1% epi or 2.5% phenyl will do what in a pt with sudden ptosis and miosis and why?
Elevate lids; b/c of hypersensitivity
Toxicity of NE
Increased BP
ADH acts on the...
Collecting Tubules
Adrenergic drugs (do/do not) affect accommodation much?
Do Not
Albumin is not involved in what?
Detoxification of drugs
What type of drug is amiodarone and what is the SE?
Antiarrythmic, whorl opacities/vortex keratopathy
Alpha blocker followed by epi causes what?
Antazoline phosphate is what type of drug and used for what?
H1-blocker; Type 1 hypersensitivity
SE of Anticholinesterases?
Excess tearing
Accommodative Spasms
SE of Atropine?
Dry Skin and Tachycardia
Bacitracin and Gramicidin are effective against ..?
both Gram (+) and Gram (–).
Bacitracin is good against
Gram (+) in pus and blood
Bacitracin is the first drug used to treat
staph blepharitis
β2-agonists (aminophylline) can be used to treat
Betaxolol does not cause
Bioavailability is best defined as
the amount of drug present at the desired receptor level.
Cephalosporins are associated with
Chloramphenicol is known to cause
blood dyscrasias and Grey Baby Syndrome
Chloroquine (antimalarial) causes
bull’s-eye retinopathy.
Chloroquine accumulates in
RPE and choroid
Chlorphinaramine blocks
H1 receptors.
Cholinergic drugs (increase/decrease) the AC/A ratio.
Cimetidine is a ... agonist and is prescribed as a .../
Cocaine acts as a
Cocaine blocks the reuptake of what?
Cooperativity is
binding one substrate which increases another site’s affinity for another substrate.
What is the corneal toxicity of Epinephrine?
Adenochrome deposits
What can cyclopentolate cause in kids?
Cyclosporine is used to prevent what?
Graft Rejection
Diazepam enhances what?
Digoxin increases what?
Contractile Force
Doubling the dose of a drug usually does what?
increases its duration of action by one half life
What are drugs excreted in the breast milk dangerous to the baby?
Lack of metabolic enzymes
What are the two irreversible anticholinesterases?
Echothiophate and Isoflurophate
Epi decreases the systemic absorption of what?
local anesthetics
What is epinephrine used for?
Suspersensitivity denervation
Erythromycin is (Broad/Narrow) spectrum and active against what?
Broad spectrum
What are esters?
Short acting local anesthetics
What is the most powerful Diuretic?
Where is Gastrin made?
G Cells of the stomach
Diphenhydramine (OTC) causes what?
CNS depressant effects
Gramicidin is similar to which drug?
What is H1 blockers affect on accommodation with long term use?
Decreases accommodation
High TI means the drug is safer or more dangerous?
What is the effect of Hydroxyamphetamines on EPi and Norepi?
What are commonly used to calm anxious patients?
What was Ibuprofen's original use and what is it used for now?
Tx for RA
What do you give to a pt in anaphylactic shock?
What is the SE of adding a TCA to an MAOI?
Hypertensive crisis
What receptors does Isoproterenol stimulate?
Beta 1 and Beta 2
What type of drug is Isosorbide?
Osmotic Diuretic
What is Ketanserin and what is is used for?
Serotonin Antagonist
Tx of Hypertension
How does labetolol work?
blocks all adrenergic receptors
What are large doses of aspirin useful for?
Promoting uric acid excretion
What is LIdocaine used for?
Ventricular Arrhythmias
How do local anesthetics work?
block Na+ channels
What are Lomustine and Camustine used to tx?
Brain tumors
Where do loop diuretics work?
Ascending Limb
Mannitol affects what part of the kidney?
Descending loop
What is used to Dx Aide's Tonic Pupil?
What type of drug is methazolamide?
Nitroglycerine is used in the emergency tx of what? but is regularly prescribd for what?
Methicillin is ... resistant?
When is Neomycin used in the Eye?
In conjuction with steroids
Neomycin is (bactericidal/bacteristatic) and used for what type of hypersensitivty rxns?
Type IV
What is a SE of nicotine?
Clonic spasms of the EOM's
When are NSAIDs CI?
Peptic Ulcer Dz
Nystatin is good against what? WHy is is not used systemically?
Fungal infections of the skin
Too Toxic
What order kinetics do ocuserts follow?
How do opiates cause death?
respiratory depression
Parasympathetic stimulation will (increase/decrease) AV conduction
How does the parathyroid hormone work?
Bone Resportion
When should a pt not be given phenylephrine?
Pt on amitriptyline
What is used to Tx candida infections?
What is Polymixin B not effective against?
Staph aureus (Gram +)
What is Povidone?
What is the SE of prolonged use of corticosteroids?
HTN and Posterior Subcapsular cataracts
What is Propantheline?
Synthetic antimuscarinic agent
What is proparacaine's duration of action?
15 min
Propanolol is a (Positive/Negative) Ionotrope?
What is Quinidine used to tx?
What is the SE of Chlorpromazine?
Dry mouth
What is affected first by local anesthetics?
Small unmyelinated fibers
What is the effect of steroids on IOP?
Succinylcholine is (Competitive/Non-Competitive) with Acetylcholine?
What is Succinylcholine?
Muscle relaxant that acts by maintaining depolarization of the motor endplate
What is Sucraflate?
Anti-ulcer med that coats the stomach
What is the mechanism of action of Sulfacetamide?
inhibits folic acid metabolism
What SE would not be expected with echothiphate?
What is the mechanism of action of Tetracycline and what is it used to treat?
inhibits cell protein synthesis at 30S
treats chlamydia
What does tetrahydrolazine (Visine) cause?
What is the antidote for atropine overdose?
The steady state plasma concentration (is/is not) affected by the half-life of a drug?
Is not
What is the effect of Thiopental being slowly metabolized?
Has a long duration
What does Thyroxine stimulate?
the levator
Tobramycin is effective against what?
What is Tolbutimen's effect on the receptor?
makes it more effective
How should you treat trachoma?
oral tetracycline
What is Trazadone
Atypical anti-depressant
When is velocity 1/2 max?
when the substrate concentration equals Km
What does the A band contain?
actin and myosin
A lesion where would give you Aide's tonic pupil?
Ciliary ganglion
Describe velocity and total cross section as you go from artery -> arteriole -> capillary.
Decrease velocity
Increase in total cross sectional area
What is the SE of Calcitonin and how does it do it?
Inhibiting bone resportion
What type of junctions are responsible for electrical transmissions?
Gap Junctions
In skeletal muscle, what does calcium bind to? What does it bind to in smooth muscle?
Which are larger? Blood or lymph capillaries
Monocytes turn into what? and are associated with acute or chronic inflammation?
Where are oligodendrocytes found in the eye/
in the retolaminar part of the optic nerve
Where do the pancreas and gall bladder empty into?
the duodenum
What are the Paranasal sinuses?
Ethmoid, Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid
Parasympathetic is ..... while Sympathetic is ......
When is the parathyroid hormone released?
in response to DECREASE in Ca2+
What is the method of secretion of the parotid (salivary) glands?
What is the POsterior Auricular artery a branch of?
external cartoid
What does the posterior communicating artery connect?
internal carotid and posterior cerebral artery
What does prolactin stimulate?
mamillary body secretions
What are proto-oncogenes?
Normal tissue component that regulates cell proliferation
What causes the release of neurotransmitter?
Respiratory bronchi (do/do not) have cartilage?
Do not
What is least likely to cause pulmonary edema?
Right Ventricular Failure
What surrounds the axons in the PNS?
Schwann Cells
What is secretin secreted by and what is the stimualtion for secretion?
low pH in the stomach
What is the Trapezius innervated by and what is its action?
What is the slowest conduction of the heart? Fastest?
AV node
Bundle of His
Can Smooth muscle regenerate?
What produces Somatostatin?
D Cells of the Pancreas
What part of the skin is most active?
Stratum Basale
What lines the craters in the stomach?
What secretes Surfactant?
Type 2 alveolar cells
Describe the innervation of taste?
Anterior 2/3 of tongue: CN VII
Posterior 1/3 of tongue: CN IX
What is the adequate stimulus for the semicircular canal?
What opens to the superior meatus? Middle meatus? Inferior meatus?
Anterior Ethmoidal Air Cells
Nasolacrimal duct
What does the cavernous sinus enclose?
The somatic afferent and efferent nerves to the eye and its muscles
What bundle branch is not part of the moderator band?
Right bundle branch
Where is the Ciliary ganglion located?
between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus
Where is the Ciliospinal center of budge?
Between C8 and T1 or T2
When do corneal nerves loses their myelination?
As they progress through the stroma
What innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic Nerve
What forms the dilator muscle of the iris?
epithelial cell processes
Where is the fossa for the lacrimal gland located?
Frontal bone
What is the framework of the heart (endocardium) made of?
Fibrous connective tissue
How is the hypophysis connected to the brain stem?
Portal system
How are the kidneys placed in the body?
What makes up the lateral wall of the orbit?
Zygomatic Bone
Greater wing of the sphenoid
What is the least damageable cell type?
stratified pseudocolumnar
What does the maxillary artery NOT pass through?
The SOF and the Cavernous sinus
What is the muscle involved in brow furrowing while frowning?
Corrugator superciliaris
What part of the orbit does the optic nerve go through?
lesser wing of the sphenoid (thru the optic canal)
What forms the SOF?
Greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid
How does the orbit communicate with the IT fossa and PP fossa?
thru the IOF
What protects the orbit from inflammation?
orbital septum
What is the orbital septum continuous with?
Tarsal Plate
What bone contributes least to the orbit?
Palatine bone
Is the pancreas exocrine or endocrine?
What sits below the pituitary?
Sphenoid sinus
Where does the spina recti lateralis lie?
on the sphenoid bone
What is found between the cerebrum and cerebellum?
Tentorium cerebeli
What is the most mitotic layer of the epidermis?
Statum germinativum/stratum basale
What is the thymus needed for and what is its life cycle?
Cell Mediated immunity
Active until young adult and then atrophies
The tympanic membrane (is/is not) part of the cochlea.
Is not
Where does the vertebral artery arise from?
The subclavian
What does the vidian (pterygoid) nerve carry? parasympathetics or sympathetics?
How many spinal nerves are there? how many vertebrae?
31 nerves
33 vertebrae
What must happen to prevent all reflex tearing?
Disrupt the trigmeninal ganglion (prevent V1 sensation)
What makes up the Blood-Air Barrier
Type 1 pneumocytes
How do you calculate cardiac output
Stroke Volume x heart rate
How do you calculate blood flow?
arterial pressure/resistance
How do you calculate the mean arterial pressure?
1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic
pH = ?
log [H+]
Acanthamoeba is associated with what?
Extended CL wear
What type of bug is acanthamoeba?
What is Actinomyces? what can it produce?
aerobic, Gram + fungus-like bacteria
produces antibiotics
Which is more effective? Aerobic or Anaerobic metabolism?
Aerboic (18X more effective)
What is an obligate aerobe?
Can only use oxygen
What is Aspergillus and how do you tx it?
Filamentous fungi
Amphotericin B
What does autoclaving consist of?
121 deg C for 15 min
What is the best means of disinfection?
What kingdom are bacteria?
What are bacterial cell walls made of?
How can Candida albicans be cultured?
Sabouraud's agar at room temp
What is a virulence factor in bacteria?
What is responsible for gas gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens
What is Corynebacterium diptheriae?
Non-spore forming Gram- bacilli
What are the most common cause of corneal ulcers?
What organisms are club-shaped and found in normal flora?
Corynebacterium and E.coli
Endotoxins are only found where?
Gram - organisms
What type of fungi have spores and hyphae?
Fluroquinolones are good against what?
How are fungi identified?
on the basis of presence of hyphae and spores in culture
What do the most common fungal infections begin with?
What are fungi cell walls made of?
What will grow on chocolate agar?
What is Strep pneumoniae
gram + lance-shaped diplococcus
Which bugs are and are not transmitted at birth?
Are: Neisseria, Chlamydia, and Treponema
Are Not: Haemophilus
What is Haemophilus?
non-motile, Gram - coccobaccilus
Does the Herpes viruses have an envelope?
Where do heterotrophs get their energy source?
Organic sources
What is the fungal infection that resembles TB?
What is the Haemophilus aegyptius, associated with conjunctivits?
Kochs-Weeks bacillus
How do molds reproduce?
In whom does moraxella commonly cause problems?
How do you visualize a mycobacterium?
Acid Fast stain
What are mycoplasma?
Facultative aerobes
Why isn't PCN effective against mycoplasma?
Doesn't have a cell wall
What is Neisseria gonorrhea?
Gram - aerobic diplococcus
What causes river blindness?
What is the most common cause of bacterial conjunctivits?
Strep pneumoniae
What are unicellular heterotrophs?
What causes pseudomembranous collitis?
Clostridium difficile and clindamycin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram (–) or (+) rod.
What causes Rocky Mountain Spotted fever?
Rickettsia (intracellular parasite)
What are spirochetes similar to?
Gram - bacteria
What are spore-forming bacteria?
Bacillus (aerobic) and clostridium (anaerobic)
What will grow on blood agar?
Staph and strep and moraxella
What does Staph aureus cause?
Abscesses, boils, and toxic shock syndrome
Describe Staph epidermidis.
Catalase +, coagulase -, and Gram +
Is Staph epidermidis considered normal flora?
Staph aureus is coagluase + or -?
What does Streptomyces produce?
What causes syphillis?
Treponema pallidum
What is the best time to use drugs?
Log (exponential) phase
What is the worm parasite carried by dogs?
What is the obligate parastie carried by cats?
What is transformation? Conjugation? Transduction?
Transformation: Taking up naked DNA
Conjugation: via cell-cell contact
Transduction: via viruses
What is the virus of the chicken pox?
Varicella Zoster
Compare Yeast and Molds
Yeast: Unicellular
Mold: Multicellular
Both are non-photosynthetic
What are most common cause of yeast infections?
Candida Albicans
How do yeast reproduce?
Sexually and by budding
From near to far takes ... sec, far to near in ... sec.
0.38 sec
0.56 sec
What is the latency for accommodation?
300 msec
What is the max horizontal eye rotation
70 degrees
Reading is considered a collection of what?
what is the stimulus for accommodation
retinal blur
what is the stimulus for pursuits?
What is the stimulus for saccades?
What muscle is synergistic with the IO?
When is the IO responsible for elevation?
when the eye is in adducted position
From where does the IO originate?
Maxillary bone
Which EOM originates farthest from the optic foramen?
Which EOM does not have the same anataomical and physiological origin?
When does a person exhibit false torsion?
when the eye is in tertiary position
What is Botox used to treat?
How will a CN III palsy manifest?
Down and Out
What are the eye movements of REM?
Which are faster: smaller or larger saccades?
What eye movement has the shortest latency?
What pathway controls saccades?
fronto-mesencephalic pathway
When does the MR depress the globe?
when the line of site is below the horizontal plane
The orbicularis oculi is antagonistic to what?
What is the action of the SO when the eye is abducted 39 deg?
Intorsion only
If a figure skater spins to the right and then stops, which direction will be the fast phase of the nystagmus?
Flu = ____ coefficient
685 P
A difference b/t distance and near cyl (is/is not) axial in nature.
is not
1 degree is equal to how many prism dipoters?
A person looking at 250mm witha 0.125D depth of focus can move the object how many mm before it gets blurred?
How can you create a real image in a convex mirror?
With a virtual object inside the focal point
Why does an absolute presbyope have a range of accommodation?
because of depth of focus
What is an optical system that is corrected for both spherical abberation and coma called?
Where is angle lambda located?
between the pupillary axis and the line of sight
As the wavelength of light increases, what happens to the power? Temperature? Energy?
They all decrease
What is the center of rotation?
The point of zero velocity during rotation
How are depth of field and pupil size related?
What is dispersion?
The slowing of light as it crosses a media
Diverging light comes from what type of objects?
What is the calculation for the amount to put into an ophthalmoscope?
Doctors Rx + Pts Rx
Describe the Drop ball test for both dress and safety glasses.
Dress: 5/8in ball from 50 in
Safety: 1 in ball from 50 in
The focal length of a concave mirror is (dependent/independent) of the medium?
What type of telescope is the Galilean telescope?
What happens to the image displacement as the prism apical angle increases?
In a spherical mirror, how are the focal power and the radius of curvature related?
Directly proportional
What happens to the Pe if you increase the vertex distance of a + lens?
increase Pe
In what lenses do internal reflections occur most?
low (-) lenses
How does a keratometer work?
Uses a doubling prism to move the image in relation to the observed cornea
What happens to wavelength of light as it enters the eye?
Microwaves have a (higher/lower) wavelength than light?
Mirrors (do/do not) change focal length in different media?
Do Not
What type of rays cause marginal aberration?
How is oblique light that hits a clear glass surface reflected?
180 deg out of phase
Peripheral flattening of the cornea compensates for what?
spherical abberations
What is the shape of the cornea?
Aspheric and symmetric
How does a laser work?
By creating coherent light
Peripheral rays forming in front of paraxial rays is
(positive/negative) spherical aberration
How do you correct a refractive ametrope?
What is the rule for reverse slab off prism?
PDP: Plastic, Base Down, more Plus Lens
What is the correct shade for electric spot welding?
Shade #5
What is the rules for Slab off prism?
GUM: Glass, Base Up, More Minus Lens
When does spherical aberrations increase?
Plus power and pupil size
The energy of quantum is (directly/inversely) proportional to the wavelength?
What is the entrance pupil?
The image of the aperture stop in object space
Where is the far point for a hyperopic eye? Myopic eye?
Hyperopic: Behind the eye
Myopic: In front of the eye
How many refracting surfaces does the Gullstrand schematic eye have?
What is the largest refracting angle that a prism can have so that light can pass through?
twice the critical angle
What is the anterior radius of curvature of the lens?
10 mm
Where are the nodal points of the eye?
Lie at equal distances from the respective principle points
Where in the retina does the optical axis of the eye typically intersect?
nasal to the macula
The orientation of the first line of focus in the interval of Sturm is the same as which meridian?
the meridian of minimum power
Where does the pupillary axis pass?
through normal to the cornea and thru the center of the entrance pupil
What is the relationship between the retinal image size of an uncorrected axial myope vs. uncorrected refractive myope?
axial myope has larger retinal image size
What is the speed of light in air?
3x10^8 m/s (186,000 miles/sec)
In thin prisms, how does diverging light shift the image? converging light?
Diverging: toward the apex
Converging: toward the base
To use an astronomical telescope, how must an uncorrected myope move the eyepiece?
toward the objective
Up to 4 diopters of ametropia are probably due to what?
axial length
Wave theory (does/does not) explain photoelectric emission?
Does not
When accommodation is relaxed, where does the line of sight fall?
far point
When viewed through cross polaroids, a heat tempered lens will show what pattern?
Maltese Cross
When you accommodate, what happens to the exit pupil and the retinal image size?
both get smaller
With chromatic aberration, what focuses first? second? last?
First: Blue
Second: Yellow
Last: Red
Why would you decenter an XP at near?
Because of accommodation
Where would you place a +10D lens to correct a 4D myope?
35 cm
What has total memory and is hypoallergenic?
A fresnel double prism is used to demonstrate what?
What are the 4 symptoms of inflammation?
Rubor, Tumor, Calor, and Dolor
Autoimmunity is via which gene?
What region of the antibody recognizes the antigen?
Antibodies in which immune response are higher and persist longer: Primary or secondary?
What can initiate the primary immune response?
Rheumatoid factor is what type of immunoglobulin?
What is responsible for non-specific immunity?
Natural Killer Cells
Cytotoxic T Cells are active against what?
Which type of reactions are autoimmune?
Type II
Where is IgA found?
tears, mucous membranes, and GI tract
IgE have the greatest affinity for what type of cells?
Mast Cells
Which antibody can cross the placenta and which portion allows it to do so?
Fc portion
Which antibody is involved in allergy, parasitic infections?
When is IgM formed?
during the primary response to an antigen
What is Histamine Triple Response?
Localized edema
Which transplant is most likely to be rejected?
from a cousin
Acute inflammation involves what?
Transient constrictions
arteriolar dilation
capillary and venule dilation
What are the cone peaks?
Blue: 450
Green: 510
Red: 570
How much quanta is needed for detection in a dark adapted person?
5-14 (average 9)
How much quanta of light must hit the cornea for it to be detected?
50-140 (average of 90)
A Deuteranomolous trichromat matches yellow with read and green on an anomaloscope. How will it appear to a normal trichromat?
More Green
How will a gray square appear on a green background? why?
Because of simultaneous contrast
What does a myope see when looking at a cobalt filter?
red center with a blue fringe
Can a person be a deuteranomolous deuteranope?
What is the difference between a protanope and deuteranope's scotopic luminosity curve?
they are the same
What is Abbey's Law?
The luminance of a mixture of colors is equal to the sum of luminance of its parts
What is Airy's disc due to?
An emmetrope with +1.00 will see a what when looking at a cobalt filter?
blue circle with a red center
What is the rod saturation point?
When 10% of the pigment is bleached
What is Autokinetic Motion?
Apparent motion of small isolated object in dark environment
How is backward masking explained?
latency difference
How can blue arcs of the retina be seen?
As moving spots while looking at a brightly illuminated surface (blue sky)
What are Maxwell Spots?
entopic phenomenon seen in the center of the fovea
What can cause a blue yellow color vision problem?
acquired ON defect
What decreases CFF?
Cataracts and Age
Cells in ocular dominance columns respond to what?
Stimuli in the same orientation
How much does CFF decrease by age 40? Why?
7 cycles/sec
70% because of senile miosis
What happens to the CFF with yellowing of the lens?
CFF decreases
What happens to the CFF with increased light intensity?
CFF increases
What is the 1/2 life for regeneration of cones? Regeneration of rods?
Cones: 1.5 min
Rods: 5 min
What is the critical period for kittens?
1-3 months
How does a Lambert surface reflect light?
equally in all directions (a perfect diffuser)
How doe large pupils effect VA?
By spherical and chromatic aberrations
What is the location of maximal stimulus for rods?
>20 degrees
What is the rate of passage of light from a source?
Luminous flux
Why are clouds white?
Tyndall scatter
What is the basis for pseudoisochormatic plates?
Color confusion
How can color specification be demonstrated?
Where is complete spatial summation implied?
Ricco's Law
Where are cones maximally sensitive?
555 nm
When does contrast sensitivity peak?
By age 1 and remains until 39
What happens to the contrast sensitivity under mesopic conditions?
overall depression
Depth of focus varies (directly/indirectly) with the effective size of a retinal unit?
What is the minimum visible VA?
detection VA
What are Fechner's colors generally attributed to?
different photoreceptor latencies
What is the result from mixing white and black stimuli?
Fechner's colors
Which bleach faster, rods or cones?
• For every 5 degrees you move out on the horopter, how does Panum’s fusional area change?
gets larger by 1 degree
What contributes to chroma?
Hue and saturation
What specifies how much color stimulus differs from a white light of equal brightness?
If rods and cones are bleached at the same time, which will be more regenerated after 5 minutes?
If you induce exotropia, how will a monkey be able to see?
WIll be able to see out of each eye, but not at the same time
If you wanted to test scotopic dark adaptation, you would use a __ degree blue/green target located __ degrees eccentrically.
5 degree target
20 degrees
In a badal optometer, a +40D lens would provide how much dipoters per cm of object displacement?
In the dark, where is accommodative posture?
inside infinity
What is removed in the leaf room?
All monocular cues
Incandescent light yields what type of spectrum?
What is the Induced effect is from? Geometric effect?
What is the critical period for monkeys?
6 weeks
What will monkeys raised in a confined environment exhibit?
What are Moore's lightning streaks a sign of?
What causes most ectopic phenomena?
Vitreal floaters
What is the most common form of hereditary color vision deficiency?
What is the most common method of determining the horopter?
Apparent Fronto-parallel plane (AFPP)
What is a cue that is within arms length?
Motion parallax
What causes night myopia?
resting accommodation
chromatic aberration
spherical aberration
extrafoveal fixation
What is normal Vernier acuity?
2-4 sec arc
Where is Panum’s fusional area is largest?
What is the peak CFF?
5 cycles/sec
Who sees phosphenes more often? and where are they seen?
middle-aged women
vertically and temporally
How is the pulfrich phenomenon seen with the right eye?
Counterclockwise ellipse
Receptive fields of complex cells are selective for what?
motion of a certain orientation
What curve is missing for a protanope? deuteranope?
Protanope: Red
Deuteranope: Green
What are the colors least confused by a tritanope?
Refocusing with a (+/-) lens affects CSF at high frequency?
Why are retinal vessels not visible?
Troxler effect
Where are rods maximally sensitive?
505 nm
Signal detection theory (does/does not) detect background noise.
does not
Why is the sky blue?
Rayleigh Scatter
How does a small pupil decrease VA?
by diffraction
Snellen acuity compares with CSF at what frequency, high or low?
Snellen acuity of 20/20 subtends 5 details of __ minute or overall visual angle of __ minutes?
What happens to spectral sensitivity as we age?
shifts towards low wavelengths
What is the highest form of VA?
Stereopsis requires what type of disparity?
The Stiles-Crawford effect I (angle affects brightness) has to do with what property of light?
The Stiles-Crawford effect is present in rods or cones?
What is temporal summation for scotpoic? photopic?
Scotopic: 100 msec
Photopic: 10-50 msec
Temporal summation is (dependent/independent) of wavelength
Temporal summation is longer for _____ stimuli and ____ light levels
What wave has the highest amp?
B wave
What is the best measure of resolution acuity?
grating stimuli
The flicker and cascade methods represent techniques used in what?
heterochromatic photometry
What is the greatest modulation in a diagram?
the one with the greatest difference between peak and trough
What hue will appear least saturated to a deuteranope?
What is a unit of luminous flux (luminous power)?
What is the main reason for modular transfer?
quality image on the retina
What is the minimum distance that can be resolved at 1km with the unaided eye?
26.8 cm
What is another name for the Nonius horopter?
equi-angular horopter
What is the peak of the photopic luminosity curve?
555 nm
What happens to the perceived brightness of a brief single flash if the time is greater than the critical duration?
remains constant
What is the photochromatic interval for red stimuli? blue/green?
Red: Zero
Blue/green: larger
Pseudoisochromatic plates are designed around what?
confusion lines of the CIE diagram
Where does the process of color analysis begin?
What proves the duplicity theory?
Purkinje Shift
What is the ratio of the input frequency to the input contrast?
spatial modulation transfer function
Which threshold sensitivity is affected more by a given amount of pigment bleaching, rods or cones?
What is the time required to perceive apparent motion?
50-60 msec pause between 2 targets
A troland is the measure of what?
retinal illuminance
What is the lminance of a stimulus times the area of the entrance pupil?
a Troland
Under scotoptic conditions, blue or red poker chips seem brighter?
Which UV light causes cataract change and is the most damaging to ocular structures?
UV B (300nm)
What happens to VA as Airy's disc decreases?
VA increases
What is the best measure of acuity?
Which stimuli are preferred in the cortex?
What is the locus of points with zero geometric retinal disparity?
V-M circle
When you are dark adapting, the cones control the threshold sensitivity until ___ % of the rhodopsin is regenerated?
When you fixate of a dark target, it is what?
With OD x090 and OS x180, which wall will seem farther out, right or left?
When are you most sensitive to blue?
when you are dark adapted
Where do fibers related to corresponding retinal points first meet?
in the optic radiations
What is a second messenger?
What is the role of albumin?
keeps the blood plasma in osmotic equilibrium with cells of the body
What vitamin is an antioxidant in the lens?
Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C)
What is the role of B12?
Synthesis of nucleic acids
Maintenance of Myelin and Folic acid
What is the most abundant protein extracellularly?
What removes free radicals from the lens?
Glutathione reductase
Superoxide dismutase
Ascorbic Acid
How are fatty acids metabolized?
beta oxidation
What holds DNA strands together?
When are Haptens recognized as antigens?
only when they are bound to larger proteins
Inhibiting what inhibits the sorbitol pathway?
aldose reductase
What is produced by ketone body excess?
Where does Kreb's cycle (TCA) occur?
matrix of mitochondria
Light converts 11-cis-retinal to what?
What are the essential fatty acids?
Linoleic Acid
Arachidonic Acid
What activates Lysozyme?
decreased pH
What pathway produces NADPH?
Pentose Phosphate Shunt
Which membranes for free radicals attack?
those containing unsaturated fatty acids
In which direction are RNA and DNA strands written?
5' to 3'
What are the bonds of saturated fats?
single bonds (no double bonds)
The golgi apparatus is used in what?
What is the highest concentration of protein in the lens nucleus?
beta cystalline
What is the highest mitotic region of the lens?
at the anterior equatorial zone of the epithelium
What is the least active pathway in the lens?
oxidative pathway of glucose
What is the primary storage form of fatty acids?
What replaces thymine in RNA?
What dimers are created by UV radiation?
Thymidine dimers
Which fats have double bonds?
unsaturated fats
Which vitamins have antioxidant properties?
A, C, E
What does Vitamin B12 require to be absorbed?
intrinsic factor
What vitamin is involved in the formation of prothrombin?
Vitamin K
Vitamins act as what?
What are the weakest bonds?
What happens to the sorbitol pathway when blood glucose is increased?