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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1st step in treating pts with neuro probs?
localize lesion
sx of myopathies?
prox symmetrical weakness w/o sensory loss
what sx do nmj diseases cause?
what sx are caused by peripheral neuropathies?
distal asymmetric weakness with atrophy, fasciculations, sensory loss and pain
what sx are caused by radiculopathies?
radiating pain
sx caused by spinal cord disease?
triad of distal symmetric weakness, sphincter probs, and a sensory level
what causes 'crossed syndromes' and what are they?
unilateral brain stem lesion; ipsilateral dysfunction of a cranial nerve accompanied by hemiparesis and/or hemisensory loss on contralateral body
what type of problem causes ataxia and action tremor?
cerebellar disease
in general what type of lesions cause aphasia, seizures and partial hemiparesis (face, arm only)?
cortical lesion
what type of problems are caused by subcortical lesions?
visual field cuts, dense numbness of primary sensory modalities and more complete hemiparesis (face, arm, leg)
what is long-term potentiation?
repetitive input to a synapse leads to learning and memory
which neurotransmitter is related to each condition:
1. Alzheimer's
2. epilepsy
3. Parkinson's
4. migraine
1. acetylcholine
2. gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA
3. dopamine
4. serotonin
what is a characteristic pattern (in DNA) of several neuro diseases?
trinucleotide repeats
give two possible reasons for foot drop (weakness of tibialis anterior muscle)
1. lesion to the common peroneal nerve
2. lesion to the L5 root
sx if facial nerve is damaged (eg. Bell's Palsy)?
entire face is weak
sx if cortical input to facial nerve is damaged (eg. stroke)?
lower half of face is weak
what does dilated or "blown" pupil imply?
compression of CN III
what is a natural protector against strokes in the brain?
collateral blood flow from the Circle of Willis
is non-communicating hydrocephalus a medical emergency?
yes - blockage will cause increase in CSF and thus ICP
name 3 tests to help diagnose myopathies
serum creatinine kinase (CK) levels, electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy
what is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults?
myotonic dystrophy
what is a big concern in the treatment of pts with myopathies?
respiratory failure
what should always be included in the DDX of myopathies?
drug toxicity
is neuroleptic malignant syndrome a medical emergency?
yes and it has a high mortality