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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between intra and extracellular enzymes?
Intracellular = inside organs/cells, have no function in plasma.
Extracellular = function in plasma.
What is the diagnostic level of extracellular enzymes?
When plasma level is decreased; they should normally be measurable in the plasma.
What are the 2 types of intracellular enzymes?
1. Secreted
2. Metabolic
What are the diagnostic levels of secreted enzymes?
Increased - when mode of secretion (excretion) is blocked
OR Decreased - when tissue is damaged.
What are the diagnostic levels of metabolic enzymes?
Increase - shows that cell damage has occured.
Give 4 examples of Enzymes of secretion:
1. Amylase
2. Lipase
3. Acid phosphatase
4. Alkaline phosphatase
Give 4 examples of Metabolic enzymes:
1. CK
2. LD
3. AST
4. ALT
Where are EXTRACELLULAR enzymes made?
In the liver
What are examples of extracellular enzymes?
Blood coagulation enzymes
Give 2 examples of enzymes that are tumor markers:
PAP and CK
What would be the diagnostic level of enzymes as tumor markers?
Increased - from tumor growth.
What is the tissue source of LD1?
Heart and RBCs
What is the tissue source of LD2?
What is the tissue source of LD3?
Lung, spleen and pancreas
What is the tissue source of LD4 and LD5?
Liver and skeletal muscle
What are 5 analytical methods for measuring isoenzymes?
1. Ion exchange chromatography
2. Immunoinhibition
3. RIA
4. Heat fractionation
5. Electrophoresis
What type of enzyme is LD?
What 2 preanalytic variables alter LD measurement?
-Gross hemolysis
-Temp of storage - should be 25C or less.
How is LD activity measured?
By monitoring absorbance at 340 nm via oxidoreduction of NADH - but the ref ranges are different depending on direction of reaction.
In what 5 diseases are LD levels clinically significant? What isotypes in each disease?
Heart disease - LD1>LD2 (flip)
Anemia: Increased LD1
Pulmonary: Increased LD3
Malignancy: Increased LD3
Liver: increased LD4/LD5
What does a normal LD electrophoresis show for levels?
What effect does MI (heart dis) have on LD electrophoresis?
1>2>3>4>5 --- LD flip
What is a faster way to measure LD-1 than the time consuming electrophoresis?
Antibody against M-subunit precipitates all but LD1
What type of enzyme is CREATININE KINASE?
What method is used for measuring CK on automated analyzers?
Reaction inhibition
What preanalytic variables must be controlled for CK samples?
1. Hemolysis
2. Store in dark or CK levels will decrease
What are the 3 isotypes of CK?
1. CK-MM
2. CK-MB
3. CK-BB
What tissue is each CK isotype specific for?
CKMM = Mostly Muscle
CKMB = Heart and Muscle
CKBB = Brain, bladder, etc.
Which CK isotype is elevated in:
-Myocardial infarct?
-Brain damage/tumor?
Injections/injury = CK-MM


Brain dmg = CK-BB
What are ALT/AST clinical markers of?
Liver disorders
Generally which is higher in hepatic damage, AST or ALT?
ALT is usually higher than AST.
What does AST >> ALT indicate?
Poor prognosis and massive cell necrosis.
What can alter ALT and AST measurements?
what type of enzymes are ALT and AST?
What type of enzyme is ALP?
What are 3 preanalytic variables of ALP measurement?
-Needs pH of 10-12
-Needs Mg2+
-hemolysis greatly increases levels falsely
What is the clinical significance of ALP measurement?
Bone and Liver
What type of liver disease does increased ALP indicate?
Biliary tract obstruction
What is the clinical significance of 5' Nucleotidase?
Liver: Increased in hepatobiliary disorders
What is the clinical significance of GGT?
What 3 enzymes are clinically significant indicators of Pancreatic disease?
Amylase, Lipase, and Aldolase
What is the clinical significance of ACP?
(acid phosphatase)
-Can be used to detect prostate cancer that is metastesized (but the PSA is better method now).
What is the clinical significance of Cholinesterase?
Used as an indicator of poisoning with anesthesia or organic pesticides.
What are important Cardiac markers? Which is elevated first after MI?
1. Myoglobin (first)
2. Troponin (more sensitive)
3. CK-MB
What enzyme will not be affected by hemolysis?
GGT - it is NOT in RBCs
Regarding ALP, where are each isoform found? (1, 2, 3)
ALP1 = liver
ALP2 = bone
ALP3 = intestine
How can ALP1 and 2 be seperated?
Liver lives, bone burns - susceptible to heat denaturation
How can 5-nucleotidase aid in ruling out liver disease?
If ALP is increased but 5-nucleotidase is normal, then you could suspect bone disease. To confirm, run an AST.
What type of liver disease would 5-nucleotidase be elevated in?
hepatobiliary disease
What type of enzyme is 5-nucleotidase?
hydrolase, like ALP
So what are all the hydrolases?
which enzyme will NOT be affected by hemolysis?
Which enzymes can aid in differentiating ALP bone from liver disease?
GGT is more specific for ___ than for ___
Alcoholism than for cirrhosis
which enzymes are specific for pancreas?
Amylase, Lipase, Aldolase
Which enzyme is specific for prostate?
Acid phosphatase - ACP
Which pancreatic enzyme remains elevated longer?
Lipase longer than amylase