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24 Cards in this Set

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Electrophoresing DNA and hybridizing a probe to it is called
Southern blotting.
When electrophoresis of RNA is performed and subsequently hybridized to a probe, the technique is called
Northern blotting.
Artifacts may include wrinkles of the section (which may be confused with ?), precipitates of stain (which may be confused with ?)
blood capillaries, cytoplasmic granules
10^1 microns = ? nanometers = ? Angstroms
10^3, 10^4
About how many microns or angstroms are: a cell? A mitochondrion? Diameter of a dna double helix? A hydrogen atom?
cell ~15um, mitochondrion ~0.5um, DNA dbl helix diam ~20A, hydrogen atom ~2A
What is the resolution of : human eye? 10X magnifying glass? Compound microscope? TEM?
human eye ~0.2mm, 10x mag glass ~20um, compound microscope ~ 0.2um, TEM ~0.1nm
What is the “unit membrane?”
under a TEM, the two dense layers of plasma membrane separated by a lighter layer
What is the function of the nucleolus? Its different areas?
general function - ribosome production, fibrils - where DNA is transcribed, granules - site of ribosomal RNA assembly into ribosomes
What is the space between the two membranes of the nuclear envelope?
the perinuclear cisterna
A mitochondrion has two membranous sacs, the outer sac is ?, the inner sac is ? and forms ?
outer sac is smooth and highly permeable, inner sac is selectively permeable and folds to form cristae
What are the functions of the mitochondria?
ATP production, Ca++ storage, steroid production (side chain cleavage)
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum comprises sacs enclosing fluid filled cavities called ?
cisternae
RER-associated ribosomes are in the form of ?
polyribosomes
Proteins made by the rough ER are often, but not always, ?
exported from the cell
SER's known functions are
biosynthesis of steroids and membrane lipids, detoxification of lipid-soluble drugs, toxins and hormones, glycogen metabolism, calcium sequestration and release (sarcoplasmic reticulum)
What are the known functions of the Golgi complex?
post-translational modification of proteins, condensation and packaging of proteins, formation of lipoproteins, processing of acid hydrolases, formation of the acrosome in sperm, "sorting" of various proteins
Vesicles may be smooth or coated with ?
clathrin
Lysosomes contain ? and function? arise from?
acid hydrolases... intracellular digestion, autophagy, heterophagy, tissue remodeling...RER, Golgi
Peroxisomes are formed from the Golgi, true or false? They contain peroxidase, true or false?
false! false!
Peroxisomes are involved in ? via their two main enzymes ?? which ?
lipid metabolism, removal of hydrogen peroxide...oxidative enzymes, catalase...beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids, break down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
Centrioles form centrosomes, which contain ? microtubules and the basal bodies of cilia, which contain ? microtubules
9 triplets, 9 doublets and two central singlets
List 5 non-organelle intracellular inclusions
pigment granules, secretory granules, glycogen, lipid droplets, crystals e.g. Reinke crystals in Lydig cells
What is the composition of the Ground Substance?
water, ions, metabolites, proteins, and molecules
How thick is the plasma membrane?
~8-10nm