Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/57

Click to flip

57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anemia
not enough RBC
Pernicious anemia
caused by lack of B-12 or lack of intrinsic factor
chyme
bolus mixed with gastric juices
sphincter
ring of muscle around tubular structure
cardiac sphincter
below diaphragm
lower esophageal sphincter
above diaphragm
pyloric sphincter
other end of stomach (near SI)
gastric reflux
chyme comes back up

*heartburn
indigestion
over extension of stomach
erosive esophagitis
eating away and inflammation of the stomach
belch
gas ... burp or fat
gall bladder
stores bile
Common Bile Duct
from gall bladder to small intestine
The components of the small intestine
1. Duodenum - 10 inches
2. Jejunum - 8 to 10 feet long
3. Ileum - 10 to 12 feet
Function of Small Intestines
1. 90% of all digestion
2. 90% of all absorption
Functions of Liver
1. storage of glycogen (starch)
2. Detoxifies poison
3. destroy old RBC's
produces and destroys 2 million/sec
4. storage of iron
5. produce bile
biliruben
major bile pigment
hepatitis
inflammation/irritation of the liver
jaundice
presence of bile in the blood

* yellowish/orange color blood
What does the liver do to alcohol?
The liver tries to break it down to CO2 and H2O but if it cannot it stores it. Too much alcohol with destroy the epithelial cells. The cells will be replaces with DFCT which is non-functional. Over time this will cause cirrhosis and the person will eventually die.
what does vitamin D absorb?
calcium
gall stones
crystalized bile
Bovine insulin
cow insulin
Porcine insulin
pig insulin
Human Genome Project
taking gene from a cell and putting it in a bacteria b/c bacterias use 100% of their genes. then they multiple.
Insulin Pumps
monitor blood sugar level 24 hrs a day and give insulin when needed
Type II diabetes means what doesn't respond anymore?
receptors ... caused by eating too much sugar, too often
acini cells
all rest of cells that make enzymes
Enzyme for Carbs
amylase
Enzyme of lipids
lipase
Enzyme for Proteins
pepsin
Enzyme for nucleic acids
Nucleases
zymogen
inactive enzyme
what is the name of the process that changes trypsinogen to typsin?
enterokinase
what is the name of the process that changes chymotrypsingen to chymotripsin?
trypsin
what is the name of the process that changes procarboxypeptidase to carboxypeptidase?
trypsin
what are the two things in the small intestines that increase surface area?
plicae circulares and villi
lacteals
specialized lymphatic functions
what changes nucleases to nucleotides?
DNA & RNA
Crypt of Lieberkuhn
pits in SI ... enzymes are made there
Brunner's gland
secretes buffers that counteract the acidity in chyme
bile
emulsify fats
emulsify
breaking larger molecules of fat into smaller molecules
fiber
material that is non-digestable in the body
cellulose
in plant materials that makes them non-digestable
enterogatrone
hormone that ...
1. contraction of pyloric sphincter
2. inhibit gastric churning
cholecystokinin
hormone ... when fat enters SI, this is released and causes contraction of gall bladder and bile is released
pancreozymen
hormone ...
stimulate pancreas to release enzymes
secretin
hormone...
tells pancreas to release buffer
villikinin
hormone ... causes intestonal villi to move back and forth ... inhance digestion and absorption
mesentaries
little folds of peritineum that holds SI together
Large Intestine is also called
colon ... 5 ft long
cecum
sac at very beginning of LI
appendix
finger like projections on cecum; have beneficial bacteria that produce Vitamin K and some B
appendicitis
inflammation of appendix
peritonitis
inflammation of peritenium; happens when appendix bursts ... can die from it
Ileocecal valve
b/t Ileum and cecum; stuff can go out, not in