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99 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the four levels of taste?
Sweet, Sour, Salty, & Bitter
Which taste is always found in the same place and where?
Bitter, always in the back of the mouth.
What is the function of
Gustatory neurons?
To allow us to taste.
What do chemicals need so you can taste them?
To be mixed with water.
What is the biggest way to lose sense of taste?
Loss of smell. 80% of your taste is related to your sense of smell.
Where is the location of the Oflactory nerve?
In the Olfactory epithelium.
Where does every sensation we have go first?
To the temporal lobe.
Do we have neurons in our tongue?
What causes us to tastes with regards to neurons?
The amount of neurons firing off to tell us what we are tasting.
Why do we have bitter receptors?
To stop us from eating things that are bad for us... such as poison.
What are the hairlike structures poking out on the surface of the tongue?
THe dendrites on top and axons on the bottom.
What are the neurons for taste called?
What are the dendrites on the surface of the tongue also known as?
Gustatory hairs
Why does smell have an impact on taste?
Because the taste and smell neurons travel on the same pathway and if one is missing, then not as much info ets sent to the brain.
Where are the nerves for smell located?
In the Olfactory nerves.
What is the reason all senses synapse in the temporal lobe?
Because that is where emotions are and they are emotional responses.
What is mucin?
A protein to thicken water.
If the nose is dry, what can occur?
We can't taste well, loss of appetite.
There are hundreds of neurons synapsing in the olfactory bulb. What is the name where this happens?
The Glomeruli
How many types of olfactory neurons are in the nose?
Each of the olfactory nerves can preceive how many types of smell?
one for every thousand
Which sense is the number one sense in the human body?
What happens when the Neuron push on in the Retina?
They begin to die.
What kind of disease does a person have when their Neuron die in the Retina?
What do they do for Glaucoma?
They drill a hole to allow drainage of the Aqueous humor.
What holds the shape of the eye?
The Vitreous humor.
At what stage is the Vitreous humor made?
In the fetal stage only.
What is the most important job of the Vitreous humor?
It holds the retina lay in place.
What is it called when the Vitreous moves causing the retina to fall?
A detatched retina.
What does the muscles of the iris in the eye cause?
Its pupil to get larger or smaller.
When the pupil is larger what part of the nerve system is this?
When the pupil is small, what part of the Nerve system is this?
When the light passes through the eye what is the first layer of nerons called?
Ganglion cells.
Does the Ganglion Cells interact with the light that passes through them?
Can Ganglion cells be stimulated by light?
When the light passes through the light to the second set of neurons they are called?
Bipolar cells.
Can Bipolar cells interact or be stimulated by light?
What is Anosmia
lacking sense of smell
What is an uncinate fit?
a halucination of smells.
Smell turkey instead of bleach.
Smell crap instead of roast.
What does melanin do?
It absorbs light.
When light hits different pigment, what happens with regards to color?
The light that bounces off and gives the color. Black absorbs the light while it bounces off white.
The retina is where the neurons for what are located?
Inside the eye in the third layer (retina), when the light comes into the eye, it hits the neurons first and then does what?
Goes into the pigment layer and becomes cemented and stays there.
What are the layers of the eye?
Sclera(outer), Choroid (middle), and Retina (inner).
What pulls the lens back and forth?
Ciliary muscles
Suspensory ligaments do what to the lens of the eye?
Hold the lens in upright position.
When a person ages, what happens to the lens of the eye?
It gets more layers on it, causing it to become less flexible, eventually causinf vision problems (close-up)
What happenes when a lens becomes to thick? What is the diagnosis?
Light bounces off the lens.
What do we produce naturally to keep our eyes moist? How much is made daily?
Aqueous humor.
1 teaspoon.
Where is the aqueous humor secreted?
From the outter portion of the eye
Where does the Aqueous humor drain? How much drains daily?
Sclera Venous Sinus or the Canal of Schlemm. 1 teaspoon.
What happens if the Sclera Venous Sinus cannot drain?
The eye buldges; It pushes back on the lens, that pushes on the retina (which are neurons), killing neurons.
Parasympathetic in regards to vision results in what?
Sympathetic in regards to vision results in what?
What colors do cones see?
Blue, Red, Green, and Yellow.
What colors do rods see?
Shades of grey.
When the light passes through the third set of neurons what are they called?
Rods and Cones.
When the light passes through the eye, can the Rods and Cones be stimulated or interact with the light?
Why are the Rods and Cones called this?
Because of their shape of their dendrites.
When the Cones and Rods interact with light, what happens next?
The light is absorbed in the pigmented layer and can't interact any longer.
With regards to Cones and how they synapse with bipolar cell, what is the ratio?
One to one.
What is the ratio for synapse(how they look up) from bipolar cells to Ganglion cells?
One to one.
Rods and their synapse with bipolar cell, what is the ratio?
Why is the synapse from Rods to bipolar cells to Ganglion?
why is the synapse important with Rods and Cones?
Because the one to one ratio gives a better picture.
What percives the various colors; red, blue, green, yellow light?
The Cones.
What perceives the shades of gray?
The Rods.
When light has synapse with the Rods and Cones, what happens next?
The information is passed to the bipolar cell, to the Ganglion cell axon group to become opyic nerve.
Do the Rods and Cones ever have an action potiental?
No, just a graded response.
Do bipolar cells have an action potiental or a graded response?
Graded Response.
Do Ganglion cells have an action potiental or a graded response?
Action potiental.
Where is our blind spot located?
Optic Disc.
Why do we have a blind spot?
Because there are no Rods or Cones to preserve light there.
What is the place where the nerons and axons meet to form the optic nerve called?
Optic Disc.
What does E=mc2 mean?
Energy = Mass X speed of light.
How is it possible to harness/compress light?
Because it has mass and weight.
What are photons?
Little packets of light that cause movement. Example:Lazer beam.
When you alter the mass or weight of light, what does it cause?
More or less energy.
How fast do electrons travel?
Faster than the speed of light.
How do the packets of light travel?
In waves.
What is it called from the peek of the wave to the through of the wave with regards to how tall the wave is?
The Amplitude.
How is the distance in sound or light wave measured?
In nanometers.
When you measure the length from peek to peek, what is it called?
A wave length.
What does the distance between the waves stimulate?
Certain Cones for color. Example: 430 energy stimulates blue Cones.
What does the distance between the waves cause?
A certain amount of energy that stimulates certain Cones.
If the distance of the wave is closer together, what does this cause?
A greater amount of energy.
What stimulates Cones for certain colors?
Wave lengths.
What happens when multiple wave lengths come in?
I can see more thant just the primary colors. Example: Purple.
The Cornea and the lens do what to light?
They bend the light.
With regards to shape, what shape is needed to allow light to go straight through?
What shape bends light in what directions?
The Cornea bends light in what directions?
Inward and straight.
When the light is bent what does it cause?
The image to be upside down and smaller.
Where do we have the greatest amount of Cones?
Fovea Centralis.
In periphrial vision, the outer area is what?
What does the brain do to the image after it inters and is upside down?
The brain inlarges it and makes it right side up.
What is an emmetropia eye?
A normal eye.
The way the retina and the lens bends the light should be enough to get it back to what?
The Phobia Centralis.
If your eye is too long or too short, what happened?
The eye sees out of focus.