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77 Cards in this Set

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What is physiology?
study of how things work ad how parts function
What is anatomy?
Deals with the structures of the body
Atom
smallest level of matter; all matter is made up of atoms
molecules
2 or more atoms joined together
EX: H2O
Cells
the smallest independent units of life.
If you break apart a cell, it is no longer alive.
What are the 4 tissue types?
muscle tissue, nervous tissue, epithelial tissue, and connective tisse.
Organ
tissues with different functions working together
organ system
organs working together
organism
organ systems working together
What are the 11 organ systems in the body?
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, pulmonary, lymph, digestive, urinary, and reproductive
Function of Integumentary system:
Protection, temperature control
EX: skin, hair, sweat glands
Function of Skeletal system
support, locomotion, blood formation, mineral storage
EX: bones, cartilage
Function of Muscular system:
locomotion, support, and heat generation
(3 types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac)
Function of nervous system:
response to stimuli and control other systems
EX: brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Function of endocrine system:
long term control of other systems
EX: thyroid gland, adrenal gland
Function of cardiovascular system
transports gases, nutrients and wastes
EX: blood, heart, blood vessels
Function of pulmonary system:
O2 and CO2 exchange
EX: lungs, diaphragm, and blood vessels
Function of lymph system:
immune defense
EX: White Blood Cells
Function of digestive system:
chemical and physical processing of food for energy, nutrients
EX: stomach, intestines
Function of urinary system
excretion, water and salt balance
EX: bladder, urethra
Function of reproductive system:
reproducing
Sagittal Plane
divides the body into left and right parts
frontal plane
divides the body into front and back parts
transverse plane
divides the body into top and bottom
midsagittal plane
divides the body into equal left and right parts
parasagittal plane
divides the body into unequal left and right parts
anterior
front
ventral
belly
posterior
behind
dorsal
back
superior
above (towards the head)
inferior
below (opposite the head)
cranial
the head
caudal
towards the tail end
rostral
on the nose side
medial
towards the midline
lateral
away from the midline
proximal
towards the trunk
distal
away from the trunk
superficial
near the surface
deep
away from the surface
facial
face
mental
chin
mental foramen
holes in chin
frontal
forehead
oral
mouth
cervical
neck
thoracic
chest
mammary
breast
brachial
arm
antebrachial
forearm
carpal
wrist
tarsal
ankle
metacarpal
hand
palmar
palm
abdominal
abdomen
coxal
hip
inguinal
groin
pubic
bubis
femoral
thigh
metatarsal
foot
what is homeostasis
to maintain constant, or static, conditions in the internal environment in face of changing external environment
there are __ (number) cells in the human body.
75 trillion
2/3 of the cells are _________ cells.
intracellular
1/3 of the cells are ___________ fluid.
extracellular
__% of the human body is water.
60%
extracellular fluid
includes plasma and the interstitial fluid
Extracellular fluid contains
large amounts of Na, Cl-, CO2 and Urea
Intracellular fluid contains
Large amounts of K+, Mg++, phosphate
What are the 2 kinds of regulation?
Autoregulation and Extrinsic regulation
Autoregulation
occurs when change in the environmental conditions causes automatic response in tissues affected to correct the problem
EX: excercising muscle cells
extrinsic regulation
when change activates a system that effects change from outside via the nervous or endocrine systems
2 categories of control systems:
passive and closed loop
Passive regulatory system
dependent on simple or physical reltionship to maintain balance
EX: urea excretion by kidney
Closed loop
the sensor provides info about a variable of interest. Mechanisms for transmission of info to an integration center to compare incoming info w/set point effector mechanism to stimulate response and change variable
negative feedback
response in in opposite direction of disturbance
EX: blood pressure
positive feedback
initial stimulus causes more of the same
EX: salivation, child birth