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21 Cards in this Set

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Adaptive Strategy
a society's system of economic production.
List the Adaptive Strategies.
Foraging (Hunting and Gathering),
Horticulture,
Agriculture,
Pastorialism,
Industrialism
Band
A correlate of Foraging; Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally.
3 types of Cultivation (food production) of nonindustrial societies
horticulture,
agriculture,
pastoralism
Horticulture
Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time. Less intensive than Agriculture. Simpler tools (digging sticks, hoes). Slash and Burn. Shifting Cultivation.
Agriculture
Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor. Use domesticated animals for transport, cultivating machines, and for manure. Use irrigation. Use Terracing.
Pastoralism
Live in N. Africa, Middle East, Europe, Asia, sub-Saharan Africa. They are herders whose activiteis focus on domesticated animals and have a symbiosis with their animals. Peopleuse their livestock in various ways: for producitve machines (milk, butter, skins) as well as food (meat). Nomadism and Transhumance.
Nomadism
Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals. More generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources.
Transhumance
One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages.
Economy
A population's system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources.
mode of production
Way of organizing production a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
peasants
Small-scale agriculturist living in a state, with rent fund obligations.
potlatch
Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America.
market principle
Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand.
redistribution
Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies.
reciprocity
One of the three principles of exchange. Governs exchange between social equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies.
negative reciprocity
Usually in dealing with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems due to ambiguity or distrust. Relationship between traders is tentative, and the initial exchange is purely economic and people want to get something back immediately in the exchange, with a profit motive.
generalized reciprocity
someone gives to another person and expects nothing concrete or immediate in return. Such exchanges are not primarily economic transactions but expressions of personal relationships.
balanced reciptrocity
Applies to exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household. The giver expects something in return but not immediately, but the social relationship will be strained if there is no reciprocation.
potlatch
Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America.
What role do religious and social ceremonies play in an economy?
The potlatch of the native groups of the North Pacific coast of North America is a good example of the integral role a festival can play in a group's economy. The sponsors of a potlatch traditionally gave away food, blankets, pieces of copper, and other material goods. In return, they gained social prestige, and the more they gave away, the more their prestige increased. Like most regions of the world, the North Pacific coast of North America is subject to local fluctuations in resource abundance. One village might have a good year while another experienced a bad one. A village enjoying a good year would take advantage of its surplus to increase its prestige by hosting a potlatch and inviting the members of the surrounding villages to attend. In this way, the potlatch created and maintained a regional economy in which a series of villages pooled their resources. The needy villages would receive the surplus from the wealthy villages, which in turn gained prestige.