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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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--- Purine and Pyrimidine Bases ---
Purines have ### major forms.
Pyrimidines have ### major forms.
2
3
--- Cholesterol ---
Is an organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of ***.
fat
*** are the major energy storage compounds in mammals and plant seeds.
Triglycerides
--- Biosynthesis/Breakdown of Fatty Acids ---
1) Occur in different *** and ***.
2) Catalyzed by different sets of ***.
3) Only Biosynthesis uses the 3-C intermediate ***.
1) pathways --- compartments
2) enzymes
3) malonyl-CoA
In Humans
1) ### Essential AA.
2) ### Conditionally Essential AA.
3) ### breakdown pathways for each AA.
1) 9
2) 6
3) 20
--- Nitrogen Fixation ---
1) Atmosphere make-up is *** N2.
2) Engine fixation produces...
3) Lightning fixation produces...
1) 78.09%
2) NO and NO2
3) NO3-
--- Purine Synthesis Pathway ---
1) Starting substrate is ***.
2) First real purine is ***. After this the
3) pathway splits into two branches yielding...
1) ribose-5-phosphate
2) IMP(Inosine 5’-phosphate)
3) AMP and GMP
Cholesterol...
derived from greek....
chole- (bile)
stereos (solid)
chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol
Metabolic oxidation of fats yields *#* kcal/g whereas carbohydrates and proteins yield only *#* kcal/g.
9 kcal/g --- 37 J/g
4 kcal/g --- 17 J/g
--- Synthesis Of Fatty Acids ---
1) Biosynthesis Intermediate Malonyl-CoA is formed from *** and ***.
2) Vitamin B7 is AKA *** and is found in many carboxylation
3) enzymes including p*** / p***-CoA / a***-CoA carboxylase.
1) Acetyl-CoA and Bicarbonate
2) Biotin
3) pyruvate/propionyl-CoA/acetyl-CoA
--- AA Breakdown Pathways ---
converge into a few terminal pathways giving mainly...
1) *** (used for new glucose)
2) *** (TCA Cycle)
3) *** (TCA Cycle)
1) pyruvate
2) acetyl-S-CoA
3) TCA cycle intermediates
--- Nitrogen Fixation 10^12g/year ---
Non-Biological - ###
1) Industrial \ Combustion \ Lightning

Biological - ###
2) Agricultural \ Non-agricultural \ Sea
80
1) 50/20/10

175
2) 90/50/35
--- Purine/Pyrimidine Synthesis/Salvage ---
LONG-FORM NAMES
1) Activated Ribose is AKA as...
2) Synthesized from starting material *** VIA
3) the enzymatic action of ***.
1) PRPP (5-PhosphoRibosyl-α-PyroPhosphate)
2) α-D-ribose-5-phosphate
3) PRPP synthetase (PhosphoRibosyl PyroPhosphate synthetase)
--- Cholesterol ---
1) Dampens influence of *** variations on cell membrane permeability / fluidity.
2) In high t, cholesterol acts to *** fluidity.
3) In low t, cholesterol acts to *** fluidity.
1) temperature
2) decrease
3) increase
Typical 70-kg human fuel reserves:
400,000 kJ in ***
100,000 kJ in ***
2500 kJ in ***
170 kJ in ***
body fat
protein
glycogen
glucose
--- Biotin in Fatty Acid Synthesis ---
1) Biotin is a prosthetic group in several enzyme catalyzed *** reactions.
2) It's produced by *** bacteria and scavenged from ***.
3) GI tract absorption prevented by glycoprotein *** found in ***(food).
1) carboxylation
2) intestinal --- bodily waste
3) avidin --- raw egg-whites
--- AA Breakdown Pathways ---
1) *** type AAs give rise to new glucose.
2) *** type AAs give rise to acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA.
1) Glucogenic
2) Ketogenic
--- Nitrogen Fixation ---
1) Fixation of one N2 requires *** ATP.
2) Biological/Non-Biological fixes 2x as much N2 as the other.
1) 16
2) Biological

175 B
VS
80 NonB
--- Nucleotide Biosynthesis ---
1) *** Synthesis Pathway is branched
2) *** Synthesis Pathway is not branched
1) Purine
2) Pyrimidine
--- Cholesterol ---
Important component for the manufacture of *** acids, *** hormones, and vitamin ***.
bile --- steroid --- D
Triacylglycerols are made of a glycerol *** with fatty acids *** at each hydroxyl.
moiety
esterified
--- Biotin in Fatty Acid Synthesis ---
1) Avidin has highest known ligand Kds for Biotin which is ### to ###M.
2) Avidin's affinity for biotin is exploited in *** and other biochemical ***.
1) 10 - 15 M
2) ELISA --- assays
--- AA Breakdown Pathways ---
Solely Ketogenic AAs....
1) *** gives product acetyl-CoA.
2) *** gives product acetoacetyl-CoA.
3) which can enter *** or create ***.
1) Lysine
2) Leucine
3) TCA Cycle --- Ketone Bodies
--- Haber-Bosch Process ---
1) Industrial process producing ***
2) from reagents *** and ***.
3) ***-based catalyst
4) Temperature...
5) Pressure...
1) Ammonia
2) N2 and H2
3) iron
4) 400-500°C
5) 200 ATM
--- Pyrimidine Biosynthesis ---
1) Starting substrate is *** which converted
2) into *** and *** in the cytosol of mammals
3) VIA the enzymatic action of ***.
1) glutamINE
2) carbamoyl-phosphate and glutamATE
3) carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
--- Cholesterol ---
Cholesterol is the principal *** synthesized predominantly in the *** by animals .
sterol --- liver
*** ***(mobilizes stored fat) is activated by P in a ***-mediated kinase cascade stimulated by glucagon or epinephrine or corticotropin.
triacylglycerol lipase
cAMP
--- Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ---
1) Bacteria - ### subunits
2) Higher plants/animals - - ### subunits
1) 3
2) 1
--- AA Breakdown ---
1) Step 1 is performed by the enzyme *** (AKA ***).
2) Amino-Acid/Keto-Acid pair utilized is *** and ***.
1) Aminotransferases (AKA transaminases)
2) Glutamate and α-KetoGlutaric Acid
GOGAT?
glutamATE synthase
--- Pyrimidine Biosynthesis ---
1st reaction resembles 1st step of urea cycle.
Except that *** replaces *** as the nitrogen donor.
glutamINE replaces NH4+

[ammonium]
--- Cholesterol ---
1) Belongs to a family of molecules called ***
2) which are all synthesized from the compound ***.
3) Family includes steroids, bile acids, g***, c*** and u***.
1) terpenes
2) isoprene
3) gibberellins --- carotenoids --- ubiquinone

ubiquinone AKA CoQ10
Triacylglycerol lipase is activated by P in a cAMP-mediated kinase cascade stimulated by the binding of *** or *** or *** to plasma membrane receptors.
glucagon
epinephrine
corticotropin
--- Bacteria Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ---
Polypeptide Subunits...
1) *** c*** protein
2) *** c***
3) ***
1) biotin carrier protein
2) biotin carboxylase
3) transcarboxylase
The AA *** has a central role ammonia assimilation.
Glutamate
GS?
GlutamINE Synthetase
--- Nucleotide Biosynthesis ---
One clear difference in the synthesis of...
pyrimidine nucleotides and purine nucleotides is that...
ribose-5-phosphate is linked after *** synthesis of the ***...
rather than during synthesis.
ring
base
--- Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
1) Pathway consists of ### stages and is
2) located in the *** of liver cells where
3) it begins with the starting compound ***.
1) 4
2) cytosol
3) acetyl-CoA
1) Triacylglycerol lipase catalyzes the release of fatty acids from...
2) Then *** lipase and *** lipase catalyze the release of the other fatty acids.
1) carbons 1 or 3 of the glycerol moiety
2) Diacylglycerol --- monoacylglycerol
--- Fatty Acid Synthase ---
1) FAS I is found in...
2) and has ### different functional activities and a main product of ***.
3) FAS II is found in...
4) and has products that are...
1) vertebrates
3) 7 --- palmitic acid (16:0)
2) bacteria and plants
4) more variable
Enzyme *** *** catalyzes net removal of N from AA pool.
1) One of few enzymes using........ as e-acceptor.
2) α-Carbon Oxidation is followed by ***, releasing ***.
Glutamate Dehydrogenase
1) NAD+ or NADP+
2) hydrolysis --- NH4+

ammonium
1 metric ton = ### grams
1 000 000
--- Key Regulators of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis ---
1) ATCase is used by *** and CPS II is used by ***.
2) CPS II is inhibited by....
3) CPS II is activated by....
1) Bacteria --- Mammals
2) UTP
3) ATP and PRPP
--- Stages of Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
1) Condensation of ### acetate units forming ***... which is
2) converted into molecule *** (#-C)... which undergoes self
3) polymerization into molecule *** (#-C)... which undergoes
4) cyclization forming the steroid nucleus.
1) 4 --- mevalonate
2) isoprene --- 5C
3) squalene --- 30C
4)
--- Glycerol & Fatty Acid Products ---
1) Exit adipocyte tissue by *** *** and
2) move to the blood plasma where they bind *** ***
3) which can bind to up to *** FA molecules.
1) passive diffusion
2) serum albumin
3) 10
--- Synthesis Of Fatty Acids ---
1) Fatty Acids are assembled in ### steps.
2) When *** acid (#:#) forms it exits the cycle.
3) The acetyl group carbons... methyl C becomes C-#
4) and carboxyl C becomes C-# of the new F.A.
1) four
2) palmitate --- 16:0
3) C-16
4) C-15
--- Excretion of Ammonia ---
1) Kidney use GLDH and *** to form ammonia.
2) Non-Kidney Tissues use GLDH and *** to form urea.
3) Hepatic Tissues converts *** to ***.
1) glutamINase
2) glutamINE synthetase
3) ammonia to urea

NH3 to CO(NH2)2
--- Ammonia Assimilation ---
Bacteria and Plants (not mammals) use these two sequential enzymes...
(GS) GlutamINE Synthetase
and
(GOGAT) glutamATE synthase
ATCase(Bacteria) and CPS II(Mammals) are key regulators of *** biosynthesis
Pyrimidine
--- Action Words of Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
4) ***
1) Condensation
2) Conversion
3) Polymerization
4) Cyclization
Glycerol taken up by the liver...
1) P'ed and *** to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and then
2) *** to glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate and
3) used in *** or ***.
1) reduced
2) isomerized
3) glycolysis or gluconeogenesis
--- F.A. Anabolism VS Catabolism ---
Beta-oxidation
1) Electron acceptor?
2) Carrier for acyl groups?
Fatty Acid Synthesis
3) Electron donor?
4) Carrier intermediates?
1) NAD and FAD
2) CoA
3) NADPH
4) Two different -SH groups
--- Excretion of Ammonia ---
1) Normal serum concentrations are ### to ### mM .
2) Levels above ### mM causes alkalosis and neurotoxicity.
1) 20-40 mM
2) 400 mM
glutamATE synthase (GOGAT)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
1) glutamINE + α-ketogluarate + NADPH
2) glutamATE (2) + NADP+
3) NO
ATCase?
(Aspartate TransCarbamoylASE)
--- HMG-CoA Reductase ---
1) Is used in Step ### of *** synthesis and
2) exists as an *** membrane protein of the ***(organelle)
3) where it serves as a *** *** *** and synthesizes mevalonate.
1) 1 --- Cholesterol
2) integral --- ER
3) key regulatory enzyme
Glycerol taken up by the liver...
1) P'ed and reduced to *** ***
2) isomerized to *** *** and
used in glycolysis or gluconeogenesis.
1) dihydroxyacetone phosphate
2) glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate
--- Active Sites of Fatty Acid Synthase ---
1) Yeast - ### large polypeptide.
2) Vertebrates - ### large polypeptide.
3) In ***, its activity requires interaction of both polypeptides.
1) two
2) one
3) Vertebrates
--- Excess Ammonia [NH3] ---
1) Enzyme ***: [NH3] + glutamATE >>> glutamINE.
Back-Up Plan 2
2) Reversal of Enzyme ***: [NH3] + α-ketoglutarate >>> glutamATE.
3) Low levels of α-ketoglutarate impairs ***.
1) glutamINE synthase
2) GLDH (glutamATE dehydrogenase)
3) TCA Cycle
GlutamINE Synthetase (GS)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
1) glutamATE + NH3 + ATP
2) glutamINE + ADP + Pi
3) YES
CPS II?
CarbamoylPhosphate Synthase II
--- Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
*** is the key regulatory enzyme.
HMG-CoA Reductase
--- Stage of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
1) Activation of fatty ***
2) Transfer and transport of *** group to *** and
3) Beta-oxidation cycle in the ***.
1) acyl-CoA
2) acyl --- carnitine
3) mitochondria
--- Acyl Carrier Protein ---
1) The *** prosthetic group is a flexible arm tethering the growing
2) FA chain to the surface of the fatty acid *** complex carrying
3) reaction intermediates from...
1) 4 '-phosphopantetheine
2) synthase
3) one enzyme active to the next
*** is a neurotransmitter and precursor for GABA.
Glutamate
GLutamATE DeHydrogenase (GLDH)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
1) α-ketogluarate + NH4 + (NADPH or NADH)
2) glutamATE + (NADP+ or NAD+)
3) YES
PRPP?
PhosphoRibosyl PyroPhosphate
--- Cholesterol/Lipid Transport ---
1) C/L from food is packaged as....
2) C/L from the liver is packaged as...
3) Reverse C/L transport is packaged as...
1) Chylomicrons
2) VLDL
3) HDL
Fatty acids are metabolized primarily as *** of CoA.
thioesters
--- Fatty Acid Synthase ---
1) It is composed of # enzymes and ***.
2) The flexible *** arm of *** reaches all active sites and
3) carrying the growing *** *** chain from one site to the next.
1) 6 --- ACP
2) pantetheine of ACP
3) fatty acyl
Glutamine contains a *** group at its terminal end.
CONH2
--- Nitrogen Fixation ---
1) Mammals lack the enzyme *** which
2) converts *** into ***.
1) glutamATE synthase (GOGAT)
2) glutamINE into (2)glutamATE
PRPP synthetase?
PhosphoRibosyl PyroPhosphate synthetase
--- Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
1) Acetate is shuttled out of the *** (organelle) into the ***
2) as *** in a shuttle system also used during *** *** synthesis.
1) mitochondria --- cytosol
2) Citrate --- Fatty Acid Synthesis
--- Components of CoA---
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) Pantotenic acid
2) 3-phosphoadenoside diphsophate
3) b-mercaptoethylamine
--- NADPH Sources for FA Biosynthesis ---
Adipose Tissue
1) 1st from the action of *** ***
2) 2nd from the...
3) In *** Tissues this order is reversed.
1) malic enzyme
2) PPP(pentose phosphate pathway)
3) Liver/Mammary Tissues
Glutamate contains a *** group at its terminal end.
COOH
Nitrate?
NO3−
IMP?
inosine 5’-phosphate
--- Cholesterol/Lipids ---
1) ***(modification) of Cholesterol increases lipophilicity.
2) Both C&L are transported in the blood as ***.
1) Esterification
2) Lipoproteins
--- Pantothenic Acid ---
1) AKA vitamin *** and is water-soluble.
2) Chemically it is the amide between *** and ***.
3) It's required for ACP(*** *** ***) involved in F.A. biosynthesis.
1) B5
2) D-pantoate and beta-alanine
3) acyl carrier protein (ACP)
--- Fatty Acid Catabolism ---
Beta-Oxidation is down-regulated in diets w/sufficient ***.
carbohydrates
Glutamic Acid is AKA ***.
Glutamate
Nitrite?
NO2−
--- Regulation of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis ---
In animals, there is an additional point of regulation...
The enzyme *** is competitively inhibited by its product ***.
OMP decarboxylase --- UMP
--- Lipoprotein Compositions ---
1) *** are the least dense.
2) *** are highest in Protein.
1) Chylomicrons
2) HDL
--- Fatty-Acid Metabolism ---
1) Most natural unsaturated F.A.s are cis/trans
2) The intermediates of saturated F.A.s are cis/trans.
1) cis
2) trans
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis ---
1) *** is the first enzyme in F.A. synthesis.
2) *** limits the transport of F.A. into the mitochondrial matrix for beta-oxidation.
1) ACC (Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase)
2) Carnitine Acyltransferase I
GLDH?
GLutamate DeHydrogenase
NiR?
Nitrite Reductase
NO3−
ITE
--- Comparison of Carbamoylphosphate Synthases ---
CPS I --- CPS II
1) Pathway?
2) Nitrogen Source?
3) Located?
4) Activator?
5) Inhibitor?
1) Urea Cycle --- Pyrimidine Biosynthesis
2) NH4+ --- Glutamine
3) Mitochondria --- Cytosol
4) N-Acetylglutamate --- PRPP
5) none --- UTP
--- Lipoprotein Compositions ---
1) *** are highest in Cholesteryl Esters.
2) *** are highest in Free Cholesterol.
1) LDL
2) VLDL & LDL
--- Intermediates in Fatty-Acid Metabolism ---
1) Saturated F.A.s give *** delta-*#*-unsaturated acyl-CoA.
2) UnSaturated F.A.s give *** delta-*#*-unsaturated acyl-CoA.
1) trans --- 2
2) trans --- 3
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis ---
High-carbohydrate meal raises blood *** levels
(1) triggering *** release.
(2) ACC is *** becoming active which then
(3) catalyzes the formation of *** which inhibits
(4) carnitine *** I thereby stopping the F.A. shuttle.
glucose
(1) insulin
(2) deP'ed
(3) malonyl-CoA (1st intermediate of F.A. synthesis)
(4) acyltransferase

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase(ACC)
--- Urea Cycle Enzymes ---
1) Mitochondria uses...
2) Cytosol uses...
1) OTC (Ornithine TransCarbamoylase)
2)
ASS (ArgininoSuccinate Synthase)
ASL (ArgininoSuccinate Lyase)
Arginase
NR?
Nitrate Reductase
NO2−
ate
--- Formation of deoxyRNA---
1) Synthesized from ***.
2) Catalyzed by an enzyme called *** that uses
3) a free *** at an active ***(AA) in the R2 site.
1) ribonucleotides
2) RR (Ribonucleotide Reductase)
3) radical --- tyrosine
--- Lipoprotein Compositions ---
1) The *** converts cholesterol into bile salts....
2) it does NOT uptake cholesterol packaged as...
1) liver
2) HDL
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) Occurs in these organs...
2) within these organelles...
3) w/preferred substrates of ### or ### C-atoms.
1) Endoplasmic Reticulum
2) liver and kidney
3) 10 or 12
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis ---
When blood glucose levels drop
(5) *** release activates ***-dependent PKA which
(6) *** and inactivates the enzyme *** causing malonyl-CoA levels to
(7) fall and the resumption of the F.A shuttle into the *** *** AND
(8) becoming the major fuel.
(5) glucagon --- cAMP
(6) Ps -- ACC
(7) mitochondrial matrix
(8)

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase(ACC)
--- Regulation of Urea Cycle ---
1) High concentrations of *** increases flux thru urea cycle.
It stimulates synthesis of N-acetylglutamate which is an
2) allosteric activator of the enzyme ***.
1) arginine

2) CPSI

Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I
-- Amino Group Xfer to all AA ---
1) Proceeds from the substrate *** via enzymatic action of a ***.
1) glutamate --- transaminase
--- Synthesis of Deoxthymidylic Acid ---
dTMP is formed from dUMP thru the enzymatic action of ***
thymidylate synthase
--- Cholesterol Delivery ---
1) Xport from liver to extrahepatic tissue as...
2) Excess extrahepatic cholesterol is transported back as...
3)
4)
1) LDL
2) HDL
3)
4)
--- Fatty Acid Metabolism ---
1) Mitochondrial b-oxidation acts at the *** end.
2) Endoplasmic Reticulum b-oxidation acts at the *** end.
1) carboxyl
2) omega
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis ---
Glucagon...
1) Triggers the mobilization of fatty acids in *** tissue.
2) Causes the enzyme *** to be P'ed becoming *** which....
3) starts the F.A. *** and subsequent metabolism of F.A. .
1) adipose
2) ACC --- inactive.
3) shuttle

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase(ACC)
1) Alanine is converted to *** as the
2) amino group is transferred to ***
3) VIA the enzymatic action of ***.
1) pyruvate
2) α-ketoglutarate
3) Aminotransferase
-- Nitrate [NO3-] Reduction to Ammonia ---
1) Not found in ***.
2) Cytosolic NR (NitrATE Reductase) converts *** to ***.
3) Chloroplastic NiR (NitrITE Reductase) converts *** to ***.
4) e- come from *** in the photosynthetic ETC.
1) animals
2) NO3- to NO2-
3) NO2- to NH4+
4) reduced ferredoxin
Thymidine is also known as ***(based on uracil)
5-methyluracil
--- Cholesterol Delivery ---
The liver takes up the *** of LDL, VLDL, and chylomicron by ***.
remnants
endocytosis
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 1st step --- CYP adds *** group onto the omega-C
2) which comes from *** and involves the electron donor ***.
3) 2nd step --- ADH oxidizes hydroxyl group to an ***.
4) ALDH oxidizes this group to an ***.
1) hydroxyl
2) molecular oxygen (O2) --- NADPH
--- Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) ---
Allosteric Inhibition
1) ***
Allosteric Activation
2) ***
1) palmitoyl-CoA
2) Citrate
3)
4)
CPSI?
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I
-- Nitrate [NO3-] Reduction to Ammonia ---
1) Not found in ***.
2) Cytosol contains this enzyme...
3) Chloroplast contains this enzyme...
1) NitrATE Reductase (NR)
2) NitrITE Reductase (NiR)
RR?
Ribonucleotide Reductase
--- Lipoprotein Compositions ---
1) Good cholesterol is AKA...
2) Bad cholesterol is AKA...
1) HDL
2) LDL
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) Enzymes of the 1st step.
2) Enzymes of the 2nd step.
1) cytochrome P450
2) Alcohol DeHydrogenase --- ALdehyde DeHydrogenase.
--- Fatty Acid Desaturation ---
Vertebrates
1) Performed by a *** type enzyme located on the
2) *** face of the ***(organelle). Both
3) *** and *** undergo oxidation by Molecular Oxygen.
1) Mixed-Function Oxidase
2) lumenal face --- smooth ER
3) fatty acyl-CoA and NADPH
Glutaminase is an enzyme generating *** from ***.
glutamATE from glutamINE
Nitrate Reductase (NR)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
4) Location?
(Nitrate is NO3−)
1) NO3- + NADPH
2) NO2- + H2O
3) Nope
4) Cytosol
--- Formation of deoxyRNA---
1) Synthesized from ***.
2) Catalyzed by an enzyme called *** that uses
3) a free *** at an active ***(AA) in the R2 site.
1) ribonucleotides
2) RR (Ribonucleotide Reductase)
3) radical --- tyrosine
--- Apolipoprotein Location ---
1) ApoA-I???
2) ApoB-100??
3) ApoC-II???
4) ApoE???
1) HDL
2) LDL
3) Chylomicrons, VLDL and HDL
4) Chylomicrons, VLDL and HDL
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 2nd step --- ADH oxidizes hydroxyl group to an ***.
2) ALDH oxidizes this group to an ***.
1) aldehyde
2) carboxylic acid
--- Other Fatty Acids ---
1) Omega-3s are ***unsaturated F.A.s with a
2) double bond after the ### C atom from
3) the *** end of the C-chain.
1) poly
2) 3rd
3) methyl
Nitrite Reductase (NiR)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
4) Location?
(Nitrite is NO2−)
1) NO2- + 6e- + 8H+
2) NH4+ + (2)H2P
3) Nope
4) Chloroplast
--- Synthesis of Deoxthymidylic Acid ---
dTMP is formed from dUMP thru the enzymatic action of ***
thymidylate synthase
--- Apolipoprotein Location ---
Apo*** is found in HDL
ApoA-I
--- Omega Oxidation of Fatty Acids ---
1) 3rd step --- *** end can be attached to CoA and enter the
mitochondria undergoing normal b-oxidation.
2) Each pass of the "***-ended" F.A. through the pathway
3) yields dicarboxylic acids such as *** and ***.
1) Either

2) double
3) succinate --- adipate
--- Omega Fatty Acids ---
Omega-3 fatty acids synthesized from ALA
1) ***
2) ***
Omega-6 fatty acids synthesized from LA
3) ***
4) ***
1) (EPA) EicosaPentaenoic Acid
2) (DHA) DocosaHexaenoic Acid
3) (AA) Arachidonic Acid
4) ---
Ammonia?
Ammonium?
NH3
NH4+
Thymidine is also known as ***(based on uracil)
5-methyluracil
--- Apolipoprotein Location ---
Apo*** is found in LDL
ApoB-100
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
1) In fasting or diabetes, OAA is used for *** formation...
2) and *** units from acetyl-CoA are diverted to...
3) form the ketone bodies acetoacetate, *** and acetone.
1) glucose
2) acetate
3) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
--- Omega Fatty Acids ---
1) Linoleic Acid (LA) is an ***-# fatty acid
2) α-Linolenic Acid (ALA) is an ***-# fatty acid
3) Both are considered *** fatty acids.
1) omega-6
2) omega-3
3) essential
-- Amino Group Xfer to all AA ---
1) Proceeds from the substrate *** via enzymatic action of a ***.
1) glutamate --- transaminase
RR?
Ribonucleotide Reductase
--- Apolipoprotein Location ---
Apo*** is found in Chylomicrons, VLDL and HDL
ApoC-II
ApoE
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
are collectively know as...
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) acetoacetate
2) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
3) acetone
Phosphatidate Is the Precursor of Both *** and ***.
Triglycerides and Glycerophospholipids
-- Nitrate [NO3-] Reduction to Ammonia ---
1) Not found in ***.
2) Cytosolic NR (NitrATE Reductase) converts *** to ***.
3) Chloroplastic NiR (NitrITE Reductase) converts *** to ***.
4) e- come from *** in the photosynthetic ETC.
1) animals
2) NO3- to NO2-
3) NO2- to NH4+
4) reduced ferredoxin
--- Degradation of Purines ---
End product in...
1) Primates, reptiles and birds
2) Other mammals, reptiles and mollusks
3) Aquatic invertebrates
1) uric acid
2) allantoic acid or urea[CO(NH2)2]
3) ammonia [NH3]
--- Cholesterol ---
1) Greatest Consumer of Cholesterol...
2) # distinct mechanisms control Cellular Supply of Cholesterol.
1) synthesis of bile acid
2) 3
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) Acetone is formed by spontaneous *** of *** as well as...
2) the catalytic action of the enzyme *** ***.
3) Acetone can/can't be converted back to ***.
1) decarboxylation of acetoacetate
2) acetoacetate decarboxylase
3) can't --- acetyl-CoA
LA?
Linoleic Acid
-- Nitrate [NO3-] Reduction to Ammonia ---
1) Not found in ***.
2) Cytosol contains this enzyme...
3) Chloroplast contains this enzyme...
1) NitrATE Reductase (NR)
2) NitrITE Reductase (NiR)
--- Degradation of Purines ---
1) End product *** is only sparingly soluble in water.
2) Overproduction results in deposits in *** and cartilaginous tissues.
3) Resulting in a disease called ***.
1) Uric acid
2) kidneys
3) gout
--- Cholesterol in Normal Adults ---
1) Synthesize # ***/day
2) Consume # ***/day
3) De *** synthesis maintains constant cholesterol level
4) in the body of # - # weight/volume.
1) 1 g/day
2) 0.3 g/day
3) novo
4) 150 - 200 mg/dL
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) Unlike F.A. are *** and can cross the *** barrier.
2) Synthesis in liver is effectively *** because the...
3) enzyme catalyzing the conversion of *** to *** isn't present.
1) water soluble --- blood-brain
2) irreversible
3) acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA
ALA?
α-Linolenic acid
Nitrate Reductase (NR)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
4) Location?
(Nitrate is NO3−)
1) NO3- + NADPH
2) NO2- + H2O
3) Nope
4) Cytosol
--- Degradation of Purines ---
1) Urease, used by *** Invertebrates,
2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of *** into...
3) *** and ***.
1) Aquatic
2) urea [(NH2)2CO]
3) CO2 and ammonia[NH3]
--- Regulation: Cholesterol Metabolism ---
1) Regulation of *** activity / level.
2) Regulation of excess intracellular free cholesterol by ***.
3) Regulation of *** cholesterol levels via...
LDL receptor-mediated *** and HDL-mediated *** ***.
1) HMGR (HMG CoA Reductase)
2) ACAT (acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase)
3) plasma
uptake --- reverse transport
-- Ketone Bodies ---
1) *** and *** are synthesized in the mitochondria of
2) *** cells where they then diffuse into the bloodstream
3) and are metabolized by the *** and ***.
1) acetoacetate and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
2) liver
3) brain and muscles
*** Is the Precursor of Both Triglycerides and Glycerophospholipids
Phosphatidate
Nitrite Reductase (NiR)
1) Reagents?
2) Products?
3) Used by mammals?
4) Location?
(Nitrite is NO2−)
1) NO2- + 6e- + 8H+
2) NH4+ + (2)H2P
3) Nope
4) Chloroplast
--- Degradation of Purines ---
1) Primates excrete ***. Other mammals undergo
2) an additional reaction involving the enzyme ***
3) which converts it into *** for excretion.
1) uric acid
2) urate oxidase
3) allantoin
--- Regulation: HMG CoA Reductase ---
1) Main function is to...
2) Most active form is...
3) P'tion occurs through the enzyme *** when
4) the levels of *** decrease/increase.
1) synthesize cholesterol
2) deP'ed
3) AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)
4) AMP --- increase
-- Synthesis of Ketone Bodies ---
are collectively know as...
1) ***
2) ***
3) ***
1) acetoacetate
2) D-beta-hydroxybutyrate
3) acetone
Ammonia?
Ammonium?
NH3
NH4+
--- Degradation of Purines ---
Final Metabolites from First to Last
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
1) Uric Acid
2) Allantoin
3) Allantoate
4) Urea
5) Ammonia
--- Regulation: AMPK Activity ---
1) Main function of enzyme is to...
2) It activates *** functions...
3) and deactivates *** functions...
1) P(inhibit) HMGR (HMG CoA Reductase)
2) catabolism - (glucose Xport, glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation)
3) anabolism (fatty acid, cholesterol, protein biosynthesis)
--- Ketone Bodies ---
Under normal conditions:
1) Utilized as energy source in *** and ***.
Under starvation conditions:
2) *** can derive ### % of it’s energy from here.
3) Spares *** protein from being scavenged for ***.
1) cardiac muscle --- renal cortex
2) Brain --- 70%
3) muscle --- gluconeogenesis
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
The *** is a classic branched pathway.
aspartate-family
--- Degradation of Pyrimidines ---
1) methylmalonic semialdehyde is an intermediate of....
2) this is diverted into...
1) Thymine
2) TCA cycle
--- HMG-CoA Reductase ---
1_ Rate controlling enzyme of the *** pathway
2) which controls synthesis of ***.
1) Mevalonate Pathway
2) cholesterol
--- Ketone Bodies ---
***: May occur during starvation, diabetes or alcoholism
Ketoacidosis
*** is a Compound that is...
1) a PPP intermediate
2) Involved w/synthesis of aromatic AAs
erythrose-4-phosphate
--- Degradation of Pyrimidines ---
1) malonic semialdehyde is an intermediate of....
2) this is diverted into...
1) Cytidine --- Uridine
2) fatty acid synthesis
--- Mevalonate Pathway ---
1) Rate-controlling enzyme is...
2) Pathway produces cholesterol and other ***.
1) HMGCR (HMG-CoA Reductase)
2) isoprenoids
--- Ketoacidosis ---
1) Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels in s***...
2) lower blood pH below ### and sometimes as low as ###.
2) Normal pH of blood is ### to ###.
1) serum
2) 7.35 --- 6.9
3) 7.35-7.45
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
α-ketoglutarate is the starting substrate for...
glutamate family AAs
--- Degradation of Pyrimidines ---
Thymine
1) Intermediates?
2) Final product is...
1) methylmalonic semialdehyde
methylmalonyl-CoA
succinyl-CoA
2) TCA cycle
--- ATP VS AMP ---
1) *** is a better indicator of a cell’s energetic state.
2) *** is normally found at higher concentrations.
1) AMP
2) ATP
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
In the liver, fatty acyl-CoA formed in the cytosol has these pathways...
1) *** in the *** or
2) *** in the ***.
1) b-oxidation --- mitochondria
2) conversion into triacylglycerols and phospholipids --- cytosol
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
oxaloacetate is the starting substrate for...
aspartate family AAs
--- Degradation of Pyrimidines ---
Cytidine --- Uridine
1) Intermediates?
2) Final product is...
1) malonic semialdehyde
malonyl-CoA
2) fatty acid synthesis
--- ATP VS AMP ---
1) Typical ATP concentrations are...
2) Typical AMP concentrations are...
1) 5-10 mM
2) 0.1 mM or less
--- Regulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation ---
Inhibition of transferring fatty acyl-CoA into the mitochondria.
1) Inhibition of *** acyltransferase I by ***-CoA.
2) Inhibition of *** dehydrogenase by an elevated ratio of [NADH]/[NAD+].
3) Inhibition of *** by high levels of acetyl-CoA.
1) carnitine --- malonyl
2) beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA
3) thiolase
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
pyruvate is the starting substrate for...
branched-chain group AAs
--- Salvage Pathways for Purines ---
1) APRT catalyzes the conversion of....
2) into...
1) PRPP and adenine
2) AMP

APRT (Adenine PhosphoRibosylTransferase)
PRPP (PhosphoRibosyl PyroPhosphate)
--- ATP VS AMP ---
If ATP drops by 10% then AMP drops by ***%.
600%
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
3-phosphoglycerate is the starting substrate for...
serine-glycine-cysteine group AAs
--- Salvage Pathways for Purines ---
1) HGPRT catalyzes the conversion of....
2) into...
1) PRPP and (hypoxanthine OR guanine)
2) IMP OR GMP

Hypoxanthine-Guanine PhosphoRibosylTransferase (HGPRT)
muscular contraction
1) ATP + H2O > ???
adenylate kinase
2) ADP + ADP > ???
1) ADP + Pi
2) AMP + ATP
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
phosphoenolpyruvate is the starting substrate for...
aromatic family AAs
(also needs erythrose-4-phosphate)
Hypoxanthine is a purine/pyrimidine derivative whose nucleoside is called ***.
purine --- inosine
adenylate kinase
??? > ???
ADP + ADP
>>>
AMP + ATP
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
erythrose-4-phosphate is the starting substrate for...
aromatic family AAs
(also needs phosphoenolpyruvate)
The purine base of Inosine is called...
Hypoxanthine
--- Regulation: Other Hormones & Cholesterol Metabolism ---
1) Glucagon and Epinephrine reduce HMGR activity via ***...
2) Insulin increases HMGR activity via ***....
1) PKA and PPI-1 (deP'ed HMGR = less C)
2) PKB (P'ed HMGR = more C)
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
In bacteria, Threonine (aspartate-family) serves as a precursor to *** (branched-chain AA).
Isoleucine
Name the forms of U in its Salvage Pathway...
uracil [base]
uridine [base + ribose]
UMP [base + ribose + phosphate]
--- Regulation: Other Hormones & Cholesterol Metabolism ---
1) Hormones *** reduces C synthesis.
2) Hormones *** increases C synthesis.
1) Glucagon and Epinephrine
2) Insulin
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
Glutamate Family AAs include...
Glutamate
Glutamine
Proline
Arginine
(from α-ketoglutarate)
Name the forms of T in its Salvage Pathway...
thymine [base]
thymidine [base + deoxyribose]
dTMP [base + deoxyribose + phosphate]
SCAP?
SREBP Cleavage Activating Protein
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
Aspartate Family AAs include...
Apartate
Asparagine
Methionine
Threonine
(from oxaloacetate)
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
Branched-Chain Group AAs include...
Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
(from pyruvate)
--- Salvage Pathways for Pyrimidines ---
base [E1] base+ribose [E2] base+ribose+P
1) E1 is called...
2) E2 is called....
3) What E releases P?
1) [base] phosphorylase
2) [base] kinase
3) E1
SREBP?
Sterol Regulation Element-Binding Protein
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
3-Phosphoplycerate is the metabolic precursor of what AAs?
Serine
Glycine
Cysteine
--- Thymine vs Uracil ---
T differs from U in that it....
has an additional...
5' methyl group
--- Regulation: Gene Expression & Cholesterol Biosynthesis ---
1) Transcriptional Regulation controls gene expression of *** via a
2) family of proteins called *** which activate transcription upon binding DNA.
1) HMG-CoA reductase.
2) SREBPs (Sterol Regulation Element-Binding Proteins)
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
Aromatic Family AAs include..
Tryptophan
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
(from phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate)
--- Thymine vs Uracil ---
U differs from T in that it....
lacks a...
5' methyl group
--- SREBP Activation ---
1) SREBP are transcriptional activators of *** and are initially found
2) bound with *** in the membrane of the *** causing it to be inactive.
3) When *** levels decrease, the complex migrates to the *** where its
N-terminal domain is cleaved 2x and migrates to the nucleus
where it activates transcription of sterol-regulated genes.
1) HMGR (HMG-CoA Reductase)
2) ER membrane --- SCAP
3) sterol --- Golgi

SREBPs (Sterol Regulation Element-Binding Proteins)
SCAP (SREBP cleavage activating protein).
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
These AAs are derived from α-ketoglutarate...
Glutamate
Glutamine
Proline
Arginine
--- Mevalonate Synthesis Pathway ---
High flux through this pathways causes high/low rate of HMGR degradation.
high
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
These AAs are derived from oxaloacetate...
Apartate
Asparagine
Methionine
Threonine
--- Mevalonate Synthesis Pathway ---
1) HMGR is localized to the *** and
2) like SREBP contains a *** domain.
3) *** concentrations of sterol increase HMGR degradation
4) which occurs within a multiprotein complex called the ***.
1) ER
2) SSD (Sterol-Sensing Domain)
3) Increasing
4) proteosome
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
These AAs are derived from pyruvate...
Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
The primary signal directing proteins to the proteosome is a # kDa protein called ***.
7.6 kDa
ubiquitination
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
These AAs are derived from 3-Phosphoplycerate...
Serine
Glycine
Cysteine
--- Regulation: ACAT & Cholesterol ---
High C concentrations activate ACAT which increases *** of cholesterol for .
esterfication --- storage

ACAT (Acyl-CoA-Cholesterol AcetylTransferase)
--- Amino Acid Synthesis Pathways ---
These AAs are derived from phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate...
Tryptophan
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
--- Regulation: LDL Receptor & Cholesterol ---
High C levels diminish transcription of LDL receptor genes leading to...
1) +/- number of LDL Receptors and
2) decreased transport of cholesterol from the *** to the ***.
1) -
2) blood --- cytosol
--- Vitamin B6 ---
1) Its active form is AKA ***.
2) Coenzyme in all *** reactions and a
3) coenzyme in some *** and *** reactions.
1) Pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP)
2) transamination
3) decarboxylation and deamination
--- Physiological Functions of Bile Acid ---
1) Only significant mechanism for...
2) Prevents precipitation of *** in the ***.
3) *** agent for triacylglycerols\fat digestion via *** from the ***.
4) Facilitates absorption of...
1) cholesterol elimination
2) cholesterol --- gallbladder
3) Emulsifying --- lipases --- pancreas
4) fat-soluble vitamins
--- Vitamin B6 ---
1) The *** group of PLP forms a *** linkage with the...
2) ε-amino group of a specific *** in the aminotransferase enzyme
3) and catalyzes what's called a *** (double-displacement) reaction.
1) aldehyde --- Schiff-base
2) lysine
3) ping-pong
--- Lipases ---
1) Enzyme that catalyzing the formation or cleavage of *** molecules.
2) They are a subclass of *** enzymes.
1) fats
2) esterases
--- Essential Amino Acids ---
--- Essential Amino Acids ---
--- Conjugated Bile Salts ---
Amide bonds with *** or ***
glycine or taurine
--- Conditionally Essential Amino Acids ---
--- Conditionally Essential Amino Acids ---
--- Statin Drugs ---
1) Act through *** inhibition of the enzyme *** which
2) reduces intracellular cholesterol levels causing the ***
3) to upregulate expression of *** leading to the increased
4) clearance of *** from the bloodstream.
1) competitive --- HMGR (HMG-CoA reductase)
2) liver
3) LDL receptor
4) LDL (low-density lipoprotein)
--- NonEssential Amino Acids ---
--- NonEssential Amino Acids ---
Bile Acids OR Salts???
1) Best emulsifying agent?
2) pKa of 4-5
3) OH groups on same side
1) Salt
2) Salt
3) Acids
--- Aspartate-Family Amino Acid Regulation ---
--- Aspartate-Family Amino Acid Regulation ---
--- Bile Salts & Acids ---
Conjugated Bile Salts
1) "Good/Better" emulsifying agents
2) pKa is "higher/lower"
3) Chemically unique in that...
1) Better
2) lower --- 4-5 pKa
3) Amide bonds with glycine or taurine
--- Bile Acids & Salts ---
Primary Bile Acids
1) "Good/Better" emulsifying agents
2) pKa is "higher/lower"
3) Chemically unique in that...
1) Good
2) higher --- 5-6 pKa
3) all OH groups are on same side