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30 Cards in this Set

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QUESTION 1:

Which of the following is NOT a valid access control mechanism?

A. DAC (Discretionary Access Control) list.

B. SAC (Subjective Access Control) list.

C. MAC (Mandatory Access Control) list.

D. RBAC (Role Based Access Control) list.
Answer: B

Explanation:

The three basic access control mechanisms are: MAC (Mandatory Access Control), DAC (Discretionary Access Control) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control). There is no SAC (Subjective Access Control) list. Incorrect Answers:

C: The three basic access control mechanisms are: MAC (Mandatory Access Control), DAC (Discretionary Access Control) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control). MAC is based on predefined access privileges to a resource.

A: The three basic access control mechanisms are: MAC (Mandatory Access Control), DAC (Discretionary Access Control) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control). DAC is based on the owner of the resource allowing other users access to that resource.

D: The three basic access control mechanisms are: MAC (Mandatory Access Control), DAC (Discretionary Access Control) and RBAC (Role Based Access Control). RBAC is based on the role or responsibilities users have in the organization.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 2:

Which of the following best describes an access control mechanism in which access control decisions are based on the responsibilities that an individual user or process has in an organization?

A. MAC (Mandatory Access Control)

B. RBAC (Role Based Access Control)

C. DAC (Discretionary Access Control)

D. None of the above.
Answer: B

Explanation:

Access control using the RBAC model is based on the role or responsibilities users have in the organization. These usually reflect the organization's structure and can be implemented system wide. Incorrect Answers:

A: Access control using the MAC model is based on predefined access privileges to a resource.

C: Access control using the DAC model is based on the owner of the resource allowing other users access to that resource.

D: Access control using the RBAC model is based on the role or responsibilities users have in the organization. References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 3:

Which of the following best describes an access control mechanism that allows the data owner to create and administer access control?

A. MACs (Mandatory Access Control)

B. RBACs (Role Based Access Control)

C. LBACs (List Based Access Control)

D. DACs (Discretionary Access Control)
Answer: D

Explanation:

The DAC model allows the owner of a resource to control access privileges to that resource. This model is dynamic in nature and allows the owner of the resource to grant or revoke access to individuals or groups of individuals.

Incorrect Answers:

A: Access control using the MAC model is based on predefined access privileges to a resource. B: Access control using the RBAC model is based on the role or responsibilities users have in the organization. C: Access control using the LBAC model is based on a list of users and the privileges they have been granted to an object. This list is usually created by the administrator.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10, 668.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 4:

Which of the following is an inherent flaw in the DAC (Discretionary Access Control) model?

A. DAC (Discretionary Access Control) relies only on the identity of the user or process, leaving room for a Trojan horse.

B. DAC (Discretionary Access Control) relies on certificates, allowing attackers to use those certificates.

C. DAC (Discretionary Access Control) does not rely on the identity of a user, allowing anyone to use an account.

D. DAC (Discretionary Access Control) has no known security flaws.
Answer: A

Explanation:

The DAC model is more flexible than the MAC model. It allows the owner of a resource to control access privileges to that resource. Thus, access control is entirely at the digression of the owner, as is the resource that is shared. In other words, there are no security checks to ensure that malicious code is not made available for sharing.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, p. 720.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 393.
QUESTION 5:

Which of the following access control methods provides the most granular access to protected objects?

A. Capabilities

B. Access control lists

C. Permission bits

D. Profiles
Answer: B

Explanation:

Access control lists enable devices in your network to ignore requests from specified users or systems, or grant certain network capabilities to them. ACLs allow a stronger set of access controls to be established in your network. The basic process of ACL control allows the administrator to design and adapt the network to deal with specific security threats.

References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp. 13, 216, 219
QUESTION 6:

You work as the security administrator at Certkiller .com. You set permissions on a file object in a network operating system which uses DAC (Discretionary Access Control). The ACL (Access Control List) of the file is as follows:

Owner: Read, Write, Execute User A: Read, Write, - User B: -, -, - (None) Sales: Read,-, - Marketing: -, Write, - Other Read, Write,

User "A" is the owner of the file. User "B" is a member of the Sales group. What effective permissions does User "B" have on the file?

A. User B has no permissions on the file.

B. User B has read permissions on the file.

C. User B has read- and write permissions on the file.

D. User B has read, write and execute permissions on the file.
Answer: A

Explanation:

ACLs have a list of users and their associated access that they have been granted to a resource such as a file. When a user attempts to access a resource the ACL is checked to see if the user has the required privileges, if the required privileges are not found, access is denied. In this ACL, User B does not have an associated access privilege to the resource. Therefore User B has no permissions on the resource and will not be able to access it. Incorrect Answers:

B, C, D: In this ACL, User B does not have an associated access privilege to the resource. Therefore User B has absolutely no permissions on the resource.

References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp. 13, 211 Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 9-10.
QUESTION 7:

You work as the security administrator at Certkiller .com. Certkiller has a RBAC (Role Based Access Control) compliant system for which you are planning the security implementation. There are three types of resources including files, printers, and mailboxes and four distinct departments with distinct functions including Sales, Marketing, Management, and Production in the system. Each department needs access to different resources. Each user has a workstation. Which roles should you create to support the RBAC (Role Based Access Control) model?

A. File, printer, and mailbox roles.

B. Sales, marketing, management, and production roles.

C. User and workstation roles.

D. Allow access and deny access roles.
Answer: B

Explanation:

Access control using the RBAC model is based on the role or responsibilities users have in the organization. These roles usually reflect the organization's structure, such as its division into different departments, each with its distinct role in the organization. Thus the RBAC model could be based on the different departments. Incorrect Answers:

A: The RBAC model is based on user roles, not on resource roles such as file, printer, and mailbox roles. These resource roles might not reflect the different departments' access requirements to them. C: The RBAC model is based on user roles, not on a division between users and machines. Grouping all users together does not differentiate between the different access requirements of different users based on the role that those users fulfill in the organization.

D: By implementing allow access and deny access roles, we would create only two options: access to all resources or no access. This does not differentiate between the different access requirements of different users based on the role that those users fulfill in the organization.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 8:

With regard to DAC (Discretionary Access Control), which of the following statements are true?

A. Files that don't have an owner CANNOT be modified.

B. The administrator of the system is an owner of each object.

C. The operating system is an owner of each object.

D. Each object has an owner, which has full control over the object.
Answer: D

Explanation:

The DAC model allows the owner of a resource to control access privileges to that resource. Thus, access control is entirely at the digression of the owner who has full control over the resource. Incorrect Answers:

A: Each file does have an owner, which is the user that created the file, or the user to whom the creator of the file has transferred ownership.

B: The creator of the resource is the owner of that resource, not the administrator. C: The creator of the resource is the owner of that resource, not the operating system. References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 9-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
Which of the following are used to make access decisions in a MAC (Mandatory Access Control) environment?

A. Access control lists

B. Ownership

C. Group membership

D. Sensitivity labels
Answer: D

Explanation:

Mandatory Access Control is a strict hierarchical model usually associated with governments. All objects are given security labels known as sensitivity labels and are classified accordingly. Then all users are given specific security clearances as to what they are allowed to access.

Incorrect Answers:

A: DAC uses an Access Control List (ACL) that identifies the users who have been granted access to a resource.

B: DAC is based on the ownership of a resource. The owner of the resource controls access to that resource. C: RBAC is based on group membership, which would reflect both the role users fulfill in the organization and the structure of the organization.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-9.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 10:

Which of the following access control methods allows access control decisions to be based on security labels associated with each data item and each user?

A. MACs (Mandatory Access Control)

B. RBACs (Role Based Access Control)

C. LBACs (List Based Access Control)

D. DACs (Discretionary Access Control)
Answer: A

Explanation:

Mandatory Access Control is a strict hierarchical model usually associated with governments. All objects are given security labels known as sensitivity labels and are classified accordingly. Then all users are given specific security clearances as to what they are allowed to access.

Incorrect Answers:

A: RBAC is based on group membership, which would reflect both the role users fulfill in the organization and the structure of the organization.

C: LBAC is based on a list of users and the privileges they have been granted to an object. This list is usually created by the administrator.

D: DAC is based on the ownership of a resource. The owner of the resource controls access to that resource. References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 11:

Which of the following access control methods relies on user security clearance and data classification?

A. RBAC (Role Based Access Control).

B. NDAC (Non-Discretionary Access Control).

C. MAC (Mandatory Access Control).

D. DAC (Discretionary Access Control).
Answer: C

Explanation:

MAC is a strict hierarchical mode that is based on classifying data on importance and categorizing data by department. Users receive specific security clearances to access this data.

Incorrect Answers:

A: RBAC is based on the role users fulfill in the organization. B: There is no NDAC.

D: DAC is based on the ownership of a resource. The owner of the resource controls access to that resource. References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 12:

Which of the following is a characteristic of MAC (Mandatory Access Control)?

A. Uses levels of security to classify users and data.

B. Allows owners of documents to determine who has access to specific documents.

C. Uses access control lists which specify a list of authorized users.

D. Uses access control lists which specify a list of unauthorized users.
Answer: A

Explanation:

MAC is a strict hierarchical mode that is based on classifying data on importance and categorizing data by department. Users receive specific security clearances to access this data.

Incorrect Answers:

B: DAC is based on ownership of a resource. The owner of the resource controls access to that resource. C, D: DAC and LBAC use Access Control Lists (ACL) that identifies the users who have been granted access to a resource.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 8-10.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p. 13.
QUESTION 13:

Which of the following terms best represents a MAC (Mandatory Access Control) model?

A. Lattice

B. Bell La-Padula

C. BIBA

D. Clark and Wilson
Answer: A

Explanation:

The word lattice is used to describe the upper and lower bounds of a user's access permission. In other words, a user's access differs at different levels. It describes a hierarchical model that is based on classifying data on sensitivity and categorizing it at different levels. Users must have the correct level of security clearances to access the data. This is the system that MAC is based on.

Incorrect Answers:

B: TheBell La-Padula model prevents a user from accessing information that has a higher security rating than that which the user is authorized to access. It also prevents information from being written to a lower level of security. Thus this model is based on classification which is used in MAC. However, it is not the best answer. C: TheBIBA model is similar to the Bell La-Padula model but is more concerned with information integrity. D: TheClark and Wilson model prevents the direct access of data. Data can only be accessed through applications that have predefined capabilities. This prevents unauthorized modification, errors, and fraud from occurring. This does not describe MAC.

References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp. 455,267269.
QUESTION 14:

Which of the following password generators is based on challenge-response mechanisms?

A. asynchronous

B. synchronous

C. cryptographic keys

D. smart cards
Answer: B

Explanation:

An synchronous password generator, has an authentication server that generates a challenge (a large number or string) which is encrypted with the private key of the token device and has that token device's public key so it can verify authenticity of the request (which is independent from the time factor). That challenge can also include a has of transmitted data, so not only can the authentication be assured; but also the data integrity. Reference:

Todd Bill, The Security+ Training Guide, Que Publishing, Indianapolis, 2003, Part 1, Chapter 1
QUESTION 15:

Which of the following password management systems is designed to provide for a large number of users?

A. self service password resets

B. locally saved passwords

C. multiple access methods

D. synchronized passwords
Answer: A

Explanation:

A self service password reset is a system where if an individual user forgets their password, they can reset it on their own (usually by answering a secret question on a web prompt, then receiving a new temporary password on a pre-specified email address) without having to call the help desk. For a system with many users, this will significantly reduce the help desk call volume.

Incorrect answers:

B: Locally saved password management systems are not designed for large networks and large amounts of users.

C: A multi-factor system is when two or more access methods are included as part of the authentication process. This would be impractical with a large number of users.

D: Synchronized password would pose a serious threat for any amount of users. Reference:

Todd Bill, The Security+ Training Guide, Que Publishing, Indianapolis, 2003, Part 1, Chapter 2
QUESTION 16:

Which of the following provides the best protection against an intercepted password?

A. VPN (Virtual Private Network).

B. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol).

C. One time password.

D. Complex password requirement.
Answer: C

Explanation:

A one time password is simply a password that has to be changed every time you log on; effectively making any intercepted password good for only the brief interval of time before the legitimate user happens to login themselves. So by chance, if someone were to intercept a password it would probably already be expired, or be on the verge of expiration within a matter of hours.

Incorrect Answers:

A: VPN tunnels through the Internet to establish a link between two remote private networks. However, these connections are not considered secure unless a tunneling protocol, such as PPTP, and an encryption protocol, such as IPSec is used.

B: PPTP is a tunneling protocol. It does not provide encryption which could mitigate against interception. D: Complex password requirements make the password more difficult to crack using brute force and dictionary attacks. However, it does not protect the password from being intercepted.

References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 22-26, 105-108.

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp.112-114
QUESTION 17:

Which of the following best describes a challenge-response session?

A. A workstation or system that generates a random challenge string that the user enters when prompted along with the proper PIN (Personal Identification Number).

B. A workstation or system that generates a random login ID that the user enters when prompted along with the proper PIN (Personal Identification Number).

C. A special hardware device that is used to generate random text in a cryptography system.

D. The authentication mechanism in the workstation or system does not determine if the owner should be authenticated.
Answer: A

Explanation:

A common authentication technique whereby an individual is prompted (the challenge) to provide some private information (the response). Most security systems that rely on smart cards are based on challenge-response. A user is given a code (the challenge) which he or she enters into the smart card. The smart card then displays a new code (the response) that the user can present to log in.

Incorrect Answers:

B: Challenge-response sessions do not generate random login IDs but random challenges. C: Challenge-response sessions do not rely on special hardware devices to generate the challenge or the response. The computer system does this.

D: The purpose of authentication is to determine if the owner should be authenticated. References:

Michael Cross, Norris L. Johnson, Jr. and Tony Piltzecker, Security+ Study Guide and DVD Training System, Rockland, MA, Syngress, 2002, pp. 20-21.

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/challenge_response.html
QUESTION 18:

Which of the following must be deployed for Kerberos to function correctly?

A. Dynamic IP (Internet Protocol) routing protocols for routers and servers.

B. Separate network segments for the realms.

C. Token authentication devices.

D. Time synchronization services for clients and servers.
Answer: D

Explanation:

Time synchronization is crucial because Kerberos uses server and workstation time as part of the authentication process. Kerberos authentication uses a Key Distribution Center (KDC) to orchestrate the process. The KDC authenticates the principle (which can be a user, a program, or a system) and provides it with a ticket. Once this ticket is issued, it can be used to authenticate against other principles. This occurs automatically when a request or service is performed by another principle. Kerberos is quickly becoming a common standard in network environments. Its only significant weakness is that the KDC can be a single point of failure. If the KDC goes down, the authentication process will stop.

Incorrect answers:

A: This is irrelevant.

B: Time synchronization is more important in Kerberos.

C: Tokens devices are not as essential to Kerberos as time synchronization is. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p.17
QUESTION 19:

Why are clocks used in a Kerberos authentication system?

A. To ensure proper connections.

B. To ensure tickets expire correctly.

C. To generate the seed value for the encryptions keys.

D. To benchmark and set the optimal encryption algorithm.
Answer: B

Explanation:

The actual verification of a client's identity is done by validating an authenticator. The authenticator contains the client's identity and a timestamp.

To insure that the authenticator is up-to-date and is not an old one that has been captured by an attacker, the timestamp in the authenticator is checked against the current time. If the timestamp is not close enough to the current time (typically within five minutes) then the authenticator is rejected as invalid. Thus, Kerberos requires your system clocks to be loosely synchronized (the default is 5 minutes, but it can be adjusted in Version 5 to be whatever you want).

Incorrect answers:

A: Proper connections are not dependant on time synchronization.

C: Generating seed value for encryption keys are not time related.

D: You do not need time synchronization for benchmark and set optimal encryption algorithms. References:

http://www.faqs.org/faqs/kerberos-faq/general/section-22.html
QUESTION 20:

Which of the following factors must be considered when implementing Kerberos authentication?

A. Kerberos can be susceptible to man in the middle attacks to gain unauthorized access.

B. Kerberos tickets can be spoofed using replay attacks to network resources.

C. Kerberos requires a centrally managed database of all user and resource passwords.

D. Kerberos uses clear text passwords.
Answer: C

Explanation:

If the key distribution centre is down, all of other systems dependent on those keys won't be able to function. Incorrect answers:

A: This will not prevent Kerberos from functioning. B: This will not prevent Kerberos from functioning.

D: Encryption is part of Kerberos. No passwords are sent in clear text. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p.17
QUESTION 21:

You work as the security administrator at Certkiller .com. You want to ensure that only encrypted passwords are used during authentication. Which authentication protocol should you use?

A. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)

B. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

C. Kerberos

D. CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
Answer: D


Explanation:

CHAP is commonly used to encrypt passwords. It provides for on-demand authentication within an ongoing data transmission, that is repeated at random intervals during a session. The challenge response uses a hashing function derived from the Message Digest 5 (MD5) algorithm.

Incorrect answers:

A: PPTP is a tunneling protocol. It does not provide encryption.

B: SMTP is a protocol for sending e-mail between SMTP servers.

C: Kerberos is an authentication scheme that uses tickets (unique keys) embedded within messages. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p.112
QUESTION 22:

Which of the following are the main components of a Kerberos server?

A. Authentication server, security database and privilege server.

B. SAM (Sequential Access Method), security database and authentication server.

C. Application database, security database and system manager.

D. Authentication server, security database and system manager.
Answer: A

Explanation:

Kerberos authentication uses a Key Distribution Center (KDC) to orchestrate the process. The KDC authenticates the principle (which can be a user, a program, or a system) and provides it with a ticket. Once this ticket is issued, it can be used to authenticate against other principles. This occurs automatically when a request or service is performed by another principle.

Incorrect answers:

B: SAM is not required.

C: There is no need for an application database or system manager.

D: A privilege server and not a system manager are necessary. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp.16-17
QUESTION 23:

When does CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) perform the handshake process?

A. When establishing a connection and at anytime after the connection is established.

B. Only when establishing a connection and disconnecting.

C. Only when establishing a connection.

D. Only when disconnecting.
Answer: A

Explanation:

CHAP performance the handshake process when first establishing a connection; and then at random intervals during the transaction session.

Incorrect answers:

B: CHAP also challenges for a handshake during the connection.

C: CHAP also challenges for a handshake after the initial connection.

D: CHAP also challenges for a handshake during connections. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p.15
QUESTION 24:

For which of the following can biometrics be used?

A. Accountability

B. Certification

C. Authorization

D. Authentication
Answer: D

Explanation:

Biometrics devices use physical characteristics to identify the user. Incorrect answers:

A: Accountability does not require physical characteristics of users.

B: Certification does not require physical characteristics of users.

C: Authorization is not the same as authentication. References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp 18-19
QUESTION 25:

Which of the following is the most costly method of an authentication?

A. Passwords

B. Tokens

C. Biometrics

D. Shared secrets
Answer: C

Explanation: Biometrics

These technologies are becoming more reliable, and they will become widely used over the next few years. Many companies use smart cards as their primary method of access control. Implementations have been limited in many applications because of the high cost associated with these technologies.

Incorrect answers:

A, B, D: Passwords, tokens and shared secrets are in use in most companies since they are not as costly as biometrics.

References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp. 18-19, 265
QUESTION 26:

Which of the following provides the strongest form of authentication?

A. token

B. username and password

C. biometrics

D. one time password
Answer: C

Explanation:

Biometrics is the use of authenticating a user by scanning on of their unique physiological body parts. Just like in the movies, a user places their hand on a finger print scanner or they put their eyes against a retinal scanner. If the image matches what's on the database, it authenticates the user. Since a persons fingerprint, blood vessel print, or retinal image is unique the only way the system can authenticate is if the proper user is there. The only way an unauthorized user to get access is to physically kidnap the authorized user and force them through the system. For this reason, biometrics are the strongest (and the costliest) for of authentication. Incorrect answers:

A: Tokens are not as reliable as biometrics.

B: Usernames and passwords can be intercepted.

D: One time passwords is not the strongest form of authentication among the choices given. References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp. 18-19, 265
QUESTION 27:

Which of the following represents the best method for securing a web browser?

A. Do not upgrade, as new versions tend to have more security flaws.

B. Disable any unused features of the web browser.

C. Connect to the Internet using only a VPN (Virtual Private Network) connection.

D. Implement a filtering policy for illegal, unknown and undesirable sites.
Answer: B

Explanation:

Features that make web surfing more exciting like: ActiveX, Java, JavaScript, CGI scripts, and cookies all pose security concerns. Disabling them (which is as easy as setting your browser security level to High) is the best method of securing a web browser, since its simple, secure, and within every users reach. Incorrect answers:

A: As newer versions one expects them to be better than the predecessors. However, this is not the best method to secure a web browser.

C: VPN tunnels through the Internet to establish a link between two remote private networks. However, these connections are not considered secure unless a tunneling protocol, such as PPTP, and an encryption protocol, such as IPSec is used.

D: This does not represent the best method for securing a web browser. Reference:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, pp.112-114
QUESTION 28:

How many ports in TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) are vulnerable to being scanned, exploited, or attached?

A. 32

B. 1,024

C. 65,535

D. 16,777,216
Answer: C

Explanation:

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) abuse and port scans represent known attack signatures. The Ping utility uses ICMP and is often used as a probing utility prior to an attack or may be the attack itself. If a host is being bombarded with ICMP echo requests or other ICMP traffic, this behavior should set off the IDS. Port scans are a more devious form of attack/reconnaissance used to discover information about a system. Port scanning is not an attack but is often a precursor to such activity. Port scans can be sequential, starting with port 1 and scanning to port 65535, or random. A knowledge-based IDS should recognize either type of scan and send an alert.

Reference:

Kirk Hausman, Diane Barrett, Martin Weiss, Security+ Exam Cram 2 (Exam SYO-101), Que Publishing, Indianapolis, 2003, Chapter 7

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex Publishing, 2004, p. 67
QUESTION 29:

Which of the following ports does a DNS (Domain Name Service) server require?

A. 21

B. 23

C. 53

D. 55
Answer: C


Explanation:

Port 53 is used for Domain Name System (DNS) Name Queries Incorrect answers:

A: Ports 20 and 21 are associated with FTP, where 20 are used for file transfer data and 21 for command and control data.

B: Telnet uses port 23.

D: DHCP makes use of port 55. Reference:

Microsoft Corporation with Andy Ruth & Kurt Hudson, Security+ Certification Training Kit e-Book, Microsoft Press, Redmond, 2003, Appendix B

http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
QUESTION 30:

Which of the following occurs when a string of data is sent to a buffer that is larger than the buffer was designed to handle?

A. Brute Force attack

B. Buffer overflow

C. Man in the middle attack

D. Blue Screen of Death

E. SYN flood

F. Spoofing attack
Answer: B

Explanation:

Buffer overflows occur when an application receives more data than it is programmed to accept. This situation can cause an application to terminate. The termination may leave the system sending the data with temporary access to privileged levels in the attacked system.

Incorrect answers:

A: A brute force attack is an attempt to guess passwords until a successful guess occurs. C: A man-in-the-middle attack is an attack that occurs when someone/thing that is trusted intercepts packets and retransmits them to another party.

D: WinNuke or Blue Screen of Death is a Windows-based attack that affects only computers running Windows NT 3.51 or 4. It is caused by the way the Windows NT TCP/IP stack handles bad data in the TCP header. Instead of returning an error code or rejecting the bad data, it sends NT to the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD). Figuratively speaking, the attack "nukes" the computer.

E: A SYN flood attack forces a victim system to use up one of its finite number of connections for each connection the initiator opens. Because these requests arrive so quickly, the victim system has no time to free dangling, incomplete connections before all its resources are consumed.

F: A spoofing attack is simply an attempt by someone or something masquerading as someone else. This type of attack is usually considered an access attack.

References:

Mike Pastore and Emmett Dulaney, Security+ Study Guide, 2nd Edition, Alameda, Sybex, 2004, p 135