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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scientific study of human populations.
population size
How many people there are in a given place.
population growth or decline
How the number of people in that place is changing over time.
population processes
The levels and trends in mortality, fertility, and migration that are determining population size and change.
population characteristics
What people are like in a given place, in terms of variables such as education, income, occupation, family and household relationships, immigrant and refugee status, and the many other characteristics that add up to who we are as individuals or groups of people.
The term associated with practical applications of population information.
site selection demographics
An analysis of demographic data.
investment demographics
Investing in the businesses with the greatest opportunities for growth based on changing demographics.
demographics of human resource management
Being able to employ and keep the best possible labor force.
The manufacturing and packaging of products or the provision of services that appeal to specific sociodemographically identifiable groups within the population.
Picking out particular sociodemographic characteristics of people who might purchase what you have to offer, then appealing to the consumer tastes and behavior reflected in those particular characteristics.
carrying capacity
The number of people that can be supported in an area given the available physical resources and the way that people use those resources.
natural increase
The excess of births over deaths.
population explosion
Term coined to describe recent demographic events. The world’s population did not reach one billion until after the American Revolution but since then we have been adding each additional billion people at an accelerating pace.
population implosion
An implosion is something that collapses into itself—the opposite of an explosion. As the rate of population growth has slowed down over the past two decades, there has been talk of a population implosion implying that “the world is in for some rapid downsizing”.
demographic perspective
A way of relating basic information to theories about how the world operates demographically.
Tentative explanations that help guide our thinking and our search for understanding.
Maintained that a nation’s wealth was determined by the amount of precious metals it had in its possession, which were acquired by exporting more goods than were imported, with the difference (the profit) being stored in precious metals.
checks to growth
Factors that have kept population growth from reaching its biological potential for covering the earth with human bodies.
positive checks
Causes of mortality.
preventive checks
All possible means of birth control, including abstinence, contraception, and abortion.
moral restraint
According to Malthus, the only acceptable means of preventing a birth: postpone marriage, remaining chaste in the meantime.
Favor contraception rather than reliance on moral restraint.
prudential restraint
The delay of marriage until a family could be afforded without necessarily refraining from premarital sexual intercourse in the meantime.
social capillarity
The desire of people to rise on the social scale, to increase their individuality as well as their personal wealth.
Demographic transition
The process of moving from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, from high growth potential to incipient decline
Modernization theory
Based on the idea that in premodern times human society was generally governed by “tradition,” and that the massive economic changes wrought by industrialization forced societies to alter traditional institutions.
rational choice theory
Human behavior is the result of individuals making calculated cost-benefit analyses about how to act and what to do.
wealth flow
Idea that children are a source of income and support for parents throughout life, and they produce far more than they cost in such societies.
Easterlin relative cohort size hypothesis
Based on the idea that the birth rate does not necessarily respond to absolute levels of economic well-being but rather to levels that are relative to those to which one is accustomed.
census of population
The total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or delimited territory.
registration of vital statistics
Births and deaths, as well as marriages, divorces, and abortions, are known as vital events, and when they are recorded by the government and compiled for use they become vital statistics.
population registers
Lists of all people in the country.
Administrative data
Records filled out for each person entering the country from abroad, school enrollment data and utility data on connections and disconnections.
de facto population
People who are in a given territory on the census day.
de jure population
People who legally “belong” to a given area in some way or another, regardless of whether they were there on the day of the census.
usual residence
Roughly defined as the place where a person usually sleeps.
nonsampling error
The combination of the undercount and the overcount.
differential undercount
When some groups are more likely to be underenumerated than other groups.
Demographic analysis approach
Uses the demographic balancing equation to estimate what the population at the latest census should have been and then compares that number to the actual count.
demographic balancing equation
Says that the population at time 2 is equal to the population at time 1 plus the births between time 1 and 2 minus the deaths between time 1 and 2 plus the in-migrants between time 1 and 2 minus the out-migrants between time 1 and 2.
content error
Problems with the accuracy of the data obtained in the census. Includes nonresponses to particular questions on the census or inaccurate responses if people do not understand the question.
sampling error
Differences are between the characteristics of the sampled population and the larger group from which the sample was chosen.
geographic information systems (GIS)
A computer-based system that allows us to combine maps with data that refer to particular places on those maps and then to analyze those data and display the results as thematic maps or some other graphic format.
age transition
Changes in the distribution of a population by age and sex as a society goes through the demographic transition.
age stratification
Expected roles and obligations for people of different ages.
cohort flow
The notion that at each age we are influenced by the historical circumstances that similarly affect other people who are the same age.
social status
Relative position or standing in society.
social roles
The set of obligations and expectations that characterize your particular position in society.
Learning the behavior appropriate to particular social roles.
sex ratio
Ratio of males to females.
population pyramid
A graphic representation of the distribution of a population by age and sex. It can graph either the total number of people at each age, or the percentage of people at each age.
dependency ratio
Ratio of the dependent-age population (the young and the old) to the working-age population.
zero population growth (ZPG)
When the birth rate equals the death rate.
model stable population
The age and sex structure implied by an unchanging set of mortality and fertility rates.
population projection
Calculation of the number of persons we can expect to be alive at a future date given the number now alive and given reasonable assumptions about age-specific mortality and fertility rates.
population forecast
A statement about what you expect the future population to be. This is different from a projection, which is a statement about what the future population could be under a given set of assumptions.