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102 Cards in this Set

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A diagnostic technique for obtaining a biopsy of an abnormality seen on a mammogram in which the skin is anethestized, a small incision is made & a gun device is used to obtain a sample is called:

a) open surgical bipsy
b) fine needle aspiration
c) cryosurgery
d) steriotactic core biopsy
d) steriotactic core biopsy
A diagnostic procedure that is used to differentiate between a benign tumor from a malignant tumor:

a) mammogram
b) ultrasound
b) ultrasound
The minimum size of a tumor that can be palpated is:

a) 0.5cm
b) 1cm
c) 1.5cm
d) 2cm
b) 1cm
The minimum size of a tumor that can be detected by a mamogram is:

a) 0.5cm
b) 1cm
c) 1.5cm
d) 2cm
a) 0.5cm
It is recommended that a woman 26 years of age have a CBE:

a) once every year
b) 7 days after onset of her eriod
c) optional until age 40
d) every 3 years
d) every 3 years
BSE is optional starting at the age of 20 & the best time to perform is:

a) 7 days after onset of menstruation when hormone activity is highest

a) 7 days after onset of menstruation when hormone activity is lowest

c) 7 days before onset of menstruation when hormone activity is highest

a) 7 days before onset of menstruation when hormone activity is lowest
a) 7 days after onset of menstruation when hormone activity is lowest
Term used to describe breast pain is:

a) mastitis
b) mastalgia
b) mastalgia
Diagnostic technique that can produce false-negative results in younger women due to the greater density of breast tissue is:

a) mammongraphy
b) digital mammography
c) ultrasound
c) ultrasound
A condition often caused by the entrance of staphylococcus aureus into a cracked nipple:

a) mastalgia
b) lactational mastitis
c) non lactational mastitis
d) intaductal papilloma
b) lactational mastitis
Lactational mastitis is treated by:

a) antibiotic therapy
b) reduced caffeine
c) incision & drainage
d) warm compresses
c) incision & drainage
Microcalcifications are most easily recognized by:

a) mammongram
b) ultrasound
a) mammongram

microcalcifications are not recognized by ultrasound
Although most calcifications are benign the are also associated with:

a) mastitis
b) fibroadenoma
c) intraductal papilloma
d) preinvasive cancer
e) ductal extasia
d) preinvasive cancer
results from a fine needle aspiration are:

a) results available immediatly
b) results available in 2-3 days
c) results available in 7-10 days
a) results available immediatly
Fibrocystic breast changes are most common in women that are:

a) nulliparous
b) African American women before age 30
c) white women between age 20-40
d) age 30-50
d) age 30-50
Fibroadenoma is most common in:

a) women 15-25 years of age
b) white women between age 20-40
c) postmenopausal
d) African American women before age 30
d) African American women before age 30
The term used for a benign condition characterized by changes in breast tissue is:

a) gynecomastia
b) mastalgia
c) fibrocystic changes
d) mastitis
c) fibrocystic changes
A diagnostic technique used for obtaining a biopsy of an abnormality seen on a mammongram:

a) ultrasound
b) fine needle aspiration
c) digital mammography
d) stereotactic core biopsy
d) stereotactic core biopsy
Caffiene & dietary fat reduction in addition to taking vit E, A, & B complex as well as wearing a supportive bra may relief symptoms of:

a) mastalgia
b) mastitis
c) fibrocystic breast changes
d) calcifications
a) mastalgia
A condition usully associated with srous, serosanguineous, or bloody nipple discharge on the affected side which affects women between the ages of 40-60 years of age is:

a) nonlactational mastitis
b) intradctal papilloma
c) ductal ectasia
d) cysts
b) intradctal papilloma
A condition most common in women in their 50's causing the fixation of the nipple, & usually accompanied by nipple discharge of thick gray like material is:

a) nonlactational mastitis
b) intradctal papilloma
c) ductal ectasia
d) cysts
c) ductal ectasia
A condition which is often bilateral having a firm, moveable & palpapble mass which grows rapidly & most oommon before the age of 30 in young african american women is:

a) nonlactational mastitis
b) intradctal papilloma
c) ductal ectasia
d) fibroadenoma
d) fibroadenoma
A condition that usually presents as a hard, tender, mobil, indurated mass with irregular borders & of which 50% report a history of trauma to the breast:

a) mastitis
b) fat necrosis
c) ductal ectasia
d) fibroadenoma
b) fat necrosis
A rare condition that usually occurs in late adolescence or middle age which presents a palpable mass that is usually caused by an aobscure organism & of which syphillis or TB should be ruled out:

a) nonlactational mastitis
b) intradctal papilloma
c) ductal ectasia
d) fibroadenoma
a) nonlactational mastitis
Fibrocystic changes most often occur in women between the ages of:

a) 15 - 25
b) 25 - 35
c) 35 - 50
d) 50 - 65
c) 35 - 50
The most frequently occuring breast disorder is:

a) fibrocystic changes
b) intradctal papilloma
c) ductal ectasia
d) fibroadenoma
a) fibrocystic changes
The 36 year old, white patient complains of a nipple discharge that is milky, yellow, or green & has one or more palpable lumps with complaints of tenderness & pain. She states these lumps seem to increase in size & discomfort just prior to starting her period. The nurse suspects:

a) nonlactational mastitis
b) intraductal papilloma
c) fibroadenoma
d) fibrocystic changes
d) fibrocystic changes
The nurse will anticipate an order for one of the following for a patient suspected of having fibrocystic changes:

a) mammogram
b) ultrasound
a) mammogram

mammogram is used to differentiate between fibrocystic changes & breast cancer
Fibrocystic changes most commonly occur in all of the following with exception to:

a) women w/ premenstrual abnormalities

b) nulliparous women
non users of oral contraceptives

c) women with early menarch & late menopause

d) history of spontaneous abortion

e) postmenopausal
e) postmenopausal

women are uually between ages of 35 & 50
A common cause of dicrete benign breast lumps in young african american women usually occuring between the ages of 15 & 25 is:

a) fibroadenoma
b) fibrocystic changes
c) intraductal papilloma
d) cysts
a) fibroadenoma
What is galactorrhea?
A milky secretion due to innappropriate lactation.
A benign wartlike growth found in mammary ducts & usually near the nipple often producing a bloody discharge & or a mass which usually affects women betweenthe ages of 40 - 60 yrs. TX is usually includes excision of the papilloma & the involved duct or duct system.

a) fibroadenoma
b) ductal ectasia
c) intraductal papilloma
d) cysts
c) intraductal papilloma
A benign breast disease of perimenopausal & post menopausal women involving the ducts in the subareolar area that usually involves several bilateral ducts & of which nipple discharge that is multicolores & sticky is the primary symptom:

a) fibroadenoma
b) ductal ectasia
c) intraductal papilloma
d) cysts
b) ductal ectasia
Ductal ectasia is usually painful & associated with malignancy.

true ?

false ?
false

ductal ectasia is initially painless but progresses to burning, itching, pain & eventually to swelling. Inflammatory signs are often present, the nipple may retract & discharge may become bloody.
Effective TX for ductal ectasia is usually:

a) exscision

b) warm compresses & antibiotics
b) warm compresses & antibiotics

excision of involved ducts may be recommended
GYnocomastia is most common in men & is usually:

a) temorary & benign

b) associated with malignancy
a) temorary & benign
The most frequent cause of breast tumors in women from ages 15 - 25 is:

a) mastitis

b) fibroadenoma

c) fibrocystic changes

d) intraductal papilloma
b) fibroadenoma
All of the following are true about fibroadenoma EXCEPT:

a) TX is usually excision of the lump or tumor

b) fibroadenomas are not reduced by radiation

c) TX is usually hormone therapy

d) usually occurs in young african american women
Fibroadenomas are not affected by hormone therapy
A condition that arises due to am elevation of plasma estrogen resulting from an incease in the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogens with age:

a) fibroadenoma

b) nonlactational mastitis

c) pubertal gynecomastia

d) senescent gynecomastia
d) senescent gynecomastia

occurs i 40% of older men
Tx is uneccesary & regresses in 6-12 mo's
must be biopsied
Name at least 3 RISK FACTORS for breast cancer:


1. ___
2. ___
3. ___
* female
* 50+
* family history

* menarche at 12 yrs or less * menopause at 55 or later
* full term pregnancy after 30
* nullipara
* obesity
* exposure to ionizing radiation
The main components of the breasts are lobules & ducts. Lobules are milk producing glands & ducts are the passages connecting the lobules & the nipple. In general, breast cancer arises from the epithelium lining of the lobules or ducts. Most breast cancers are from the:

a) lobules

b) ducts
ducts


Most breast cancers arise from the ducts & are invasive
Tends to be unilateral & when left untreated will usually progress to invasive cancer. Initially acts as a cancer.

a) ductal carcinoma in situ

b) lobular carcinoma in situ
a) ductal carcinoma in situ
Women with this condition tend to develop invasive bbreast cancer in the same or opposite breast:

a) ductal carcinoma in situ

b) lobular carcinoma in situ
b) lobular carcinoma in situ
A condition characterized by a persistant lesion of the nipple & areola with or without a pal[pable mass. Itching, burning, bloody nipple discharge with erosion & ulceration of the nipple occurs & is often misdiagnosed as an infection or as dernmatitis.

a) fibroadenoma
b) DCIS
c) LCIS
d) Pagets Disease
d) Pagets Disease

TX = simple or modified mastectomy

Prognosis = good f cancer remains in nipple only
The most malignant form of all breast cancers:

a) Pagets Disease
b) DCIS
c) LCIS
d) Inflammatory Breast Cancer
d) Inflammatory Breast Cancer
A condition of the breasts that that presents a thickened appearance resembling an orange peel or ridges, small bumps that look like hives:

a) Inflammatory Breast Cancer
b) Pagets Disease
c) Fibroadenoma
d) Nonlactating mastitis
a) Inflammatory Breast Cancer
TX for inflammatory breast cancer is more likely all of the following EXCEPT:

a) radiation
b) surgery
c) chemotherapy
d) hormone therapy
b) surgery

The inflammatory changes seen in inflammatory breast cancer are often mistaken for an infection & are caused by cancer cells blocking lymph channels.
Breast cancer often occurs in:

a) lower outermost quadrant of the breast

b) lower innermost quadrant
of the breast

c) upper outmost quadrant of the breast

d) upper innermost quadrant
of the breast
c) upper outmost quadrant of the breast
The main complication of breast cancer is?
recurrance
The growth of colonies of cancerous breast cells in parts of the body distant from the breast is called?
metastasis
Metastasis primarily occur through lymphatic chains which are primarily those of the axilla. Common DISTAL sites for metastasis are:
bone, lung, brain, liver
Axillary lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in early stage breast cancer. The more nodes involved the grater the risk of recurrence. The greatest risk of recurrence is in patients with:

a) 1 or more positive nodes
b) 2 or more positive nodes
c) 3 or more positive nodes
d) 4 or more positive nodes
d) 4 or more positive nodes
The more well differentiated the tumor the:

a) more agressive
b) less agressive
b) less agressive
Poorly differentiated tumors appear morphologically disorganized and are:

a) more agressive
b) less agressive
a) more agressive
A diagnostic test & surgical procedure that helps the surgeon identify the lymph node(s) that drain first from the tumor site (sentinel node) using a radioisotope &/or blue dye injected into the tumor site is called:

a) estrogen & progesterone receptor status

b) Ploidy status

c) Cell-proliferation indices

d) Sentinal lymph node dissection
d) sentinal lymph node dissection

used to assess tumor growth when considering possible adjuvant therapy
A diagnostic test used for TX decisions & prognosis is:

a) lymphatic mapping & sentinel dissection

b) Estrogen & progesterone receptor status

c) Ploidy status

d) Cell-proliferative indices
b) Estrogen & progesterone receptor status

TX decisions & prognostic
Diagnostic study to determine tumor agressivness:

a) lymphatic mapping & sentinel dissection

b) Estrogen & progesterone receptor status

c) Ploidy status

d) Cell-proliferative indices
c) Ploidy status

"ploidy agression"
Dignostic study to determine the rate of tumor cell proliferation:

a) lymphatic mapping & sentinel dissection

b) Estrogen & progesterone receptor status

c) Ploidy status

d) Cell-proliferative indices
d) Cell-proliferative indices
A prognostic idicator that assists in th eselection & sequence of chemotherapy & predicting patient response to TX is:

a) lymphatic mapping & sentinel dissection

b) Estrogen & progesterone receptor status

c) Ploidy status

d) Cell-proliferative indices

e) HER 2/neu
e) HER 2/neu

amplification & overexpression of this gene are associated w/greater risk for recurrence & poorer prognosis
Estrogen & progesterone "positive" tumors are typically:

a) well differentiated

b) poorly organized
a) well differentiated

lower chance of recurrence & better prognosis !
Tumors that are estrogen & progesterone "negative" tumors are:

a) well differentiated

b) poorly organized
b) poorly organized

have higher proliferative indices, reoccur, unresponsive to hormone therapy
The TNM System is:

a) method used to determine the genetic marker HER 2/neu

b) staging method for breast cancer

c) a lymphatic mapping method using blue dye

d) measures the rate of tumor cell proliferation
b) staging method for breast cancer
Fulvestrant-Faslodex which is used in hormonal therapy for the TX of breast cancer:

a) blocks estrogen receptors

b) destroys estrogen receptors

c) prevents production of estrogen by inhibiting aromatase
b) destroys estrogen receptors
Anastrozole-Arimidex, letrozole-Femara, exemestane-Aromasin, vorozole-Rizivor, & aminoglutethimide-Cytadren, are used in hormone therapy for breast cancer that:

a) blocks estrogen receptors

b) destroys estrogen receptors

c) prevents production of estrogen by inhibiting aromatase
c) prevents production of estrogen by inhibiting aromatase
Tamoxifen-Nolvadex & toremifene-Fareston are both used inn hormone therapy for breast cancer & :

a) blocks estrogen receptors

b) destroys estrogen receptors

c) prevents production of estrogen by inhibiting aromatase
a) blocks estrogen receptors
A system used in staging breast cancer that uses "T" tumor size, "N" nodal involvement, & "M" presence of metastasis to determine the stage of disease is called:

a) mapping
b) HER 2/neu
c) hormonal status
d) TNM system
d) TNM system
Identify which of the following mimic estrogen & bind to estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells thus blocking real estrogen from cancer cells (starving them):

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) letrozole-Femara
c) raloxifene-Evista
d) anastrozole-Arimidex
e) megestrol-Megace
f) Herceptin-(attaches to HER2)
a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
c) raloxifene-Evista

STARVES CANCER CELLS
Aromatase inhibitors bind with the body's aromatase enzyme which is responsible for producing estrogen. The lack of estrogen starves cancer cells thus prevents growth. Identify which of the following are Aromatase inhibitors:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) letrozole-Femara
c) raloxifene-Evista
d) anastrozole-Arimidex
e) megestrol-Megace
f) Herceptin-(attaches to HER2)
b) letrozole-Femara
d) anastrozole-Arimidex
e) megestrol-Megace
Bilogic response modifiers bind with proteins on breast cancer cells thus preventing growth. Identify which of the folowing are biologic response modifiers:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) letrozole-Femara
c) raloxifene-Evista
d) anastrozole-Arimidex
e) megestrol-Megace
f) Herceptin-(attaches to HER2)
f) Herceptin-(attaches to HER2)
The single most powerful prognostic factor related to local recurrence or metastasis after primary therapy for breast cancer is:

a) cell cycle phases
b) estrogen & progesterone receptor status
c) axillary lymph node status
d) DNA content
c) axillary lymph node status
Chest wall tightening, phantom breast sensations, arm swelling & sensory changes are side effects of:

a) modified radical mastectomy
b) lumpectomy
c) tissue expansion & breast implants
d) musculotaneous flap procedures
a) modified radical mastectomy
Breast soreness, edema, skin reactions, arm swelling, fatigue & sensory changes in breasts & arm are side effects of:

a) modified radical mastectomy
b) lumpectomy
c) tissue expansion & breast implants
d) musculotaneous flap procedures
b) lumpectomy
The removal of breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, & all fat & adjacent tissue is called:

a) modified radical mastectomy
b) lumpectomy
c) radical mastectomy
d) musculotaneous flap procedures
c) radical mastectomy
A potential complication r/t the excision or radiation of lymph nodes following a mastectomy or lumpectomy is lymphedema. For this reason it is important that no venipunctures or BP measurements are taken on the oerative side & :

a) elevate arm on pillows & maintain ROM of arm & hand

b) elevate arm on pillow & restrict ROM
a) elevate arm on pillows & maintain ROM of arm & hand
In cases of post-mastectomy lymphedema the nurse should encourage autonomy. In addition, all of the following should also be noted EXCEPT:

a) ADL's
b) arm exercises
c) use of elastic sleeve
d) mechanical pressure
e) tight clothing
tight clothing

TIGHT clothing should be AVOIDED! (instruct patient)
A modified radical mastectomy includes the removal of all of the following except:

a) pectoralis major muscle
b) breast
c) axillary lymph nodes
d) all fat & adjacent tissue
a) pectoralis major muscle
d) all fat & adjacent tissue

Radical mastectomy removes these in addition to the breast & the axillary lymph nodes
When a tumor is too large to excise with good margins & attain a reasonable cosmetic result, this procedure is often preferred:

a) breast conservation therapy
b) lumpectomy
c) modified radical mastectomy
d) musculotaneous flap
c) modified radical mastectomy
The most common site of recurrence of breast cancer is:

a) bone
b) liver
c) brain
d) surgical site
d) surgical site
The procedure involving wide excision of tumor, sentinel lymph node dissection &/or axillary lymph node dissection, & radiation therapy is a:

a) radical mastectomy
b) modified radical mastectomy
c) musculotaneous flap
d) breast conservation surgery (lumpectomy)
d) breast conservation surgery (lumpectomy)
A contraindication to breast conservation therapy is all of the following except:

a) breast too large
b) breast too small
c) masses & calcifications that are within same quadrant (multifocal)
d) masses in more than one quadrant (multicentric)
a) breast too large
Radiation therapy is most always used following:

a) mastectomy
b) lumpectomy
c) musculotaneous flap
b) lumpectomy
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is used :

a) in lymphatic mapping (blue dye)

b) in hormonal therapy to suppress hormone dependent tumors

c) cytotoxic drug used in chemotherapy

d) systemic adjuvant therapy
b) in hormonal therapy to suppress hormone dependent tumors (inhibiting aromatase)

DO NOT confuse with blocking or destroying estrogen receptors!!!
Premenopausal perimenopausal women are more likely to have tumors that are:

a) hormone dependent
b) not hormone dependent
b) not hormone dependent
Chances of tumor regression are significantly greater in women whose tumors:

a) contain estrogen & progesterone receptors

b) do not contain estrogen & progesterone receptors
a) contain estrogen & progesterone receptors
The hormonal agent of choice in postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive women with or without lymph node involvement is:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) toremifene-Fareston
c) fulvestrant-Faslodex
d) Aromatase inhibitors
a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex

(estogen blocker)
Given to women with advanced breast cancer & administered intramuscularly on a monthly basis:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) toremifene-Fareston
c) fulvestrant-Faslodex
d) Aromatase inhibitors
c) fulvestrant-Faslodex

given for advanced breast cancer who n longer respond to tamoxifen. Destroys estrogen receptors in cancer cells
In addition to hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, & vaginal discharge, this hormone increases the risk of blood clots, cataracts, & cancer in postmenopausal women:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) toremifene-Fareston
c) fulvestrant-Faslodex
d) Aromatase inhibitors
a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex

(estrogen blocker)
This hormone is commonly used in advanced & early stage breast cancer to prevent or treat recurrent disease & may also be used to prevent breast cancer in high risk individuals:

a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex
b) toremifene-Fareston
c) fulvestrant-Faslodex
d) Aromatase inhibitors
a) tamoxifen-Nolvadex

(estrogen blocker)
This hormone is similar to tamoxifen-Nolvadex & indicated as first line TX for metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women w/ estrogen receptor positive or estrogen receptor-unknown tumors:

a) toremifene-Fareston
b) fulvestrant-Faslodex
c) Aromatase inhibitors
a) toremifene-Fareston

(estrogen blocker)
Fluoxymesterone-Halotestin is a hormone therapy for breast cancer & is a:

a) estrogen blocker
b) estrogen supressor
c) aromatase inhibitor
b) estrogen suppressor
Megastrol acetate-Megace is a hormone therapy for breast cancer & is a:

a) estrogen blocker
b) estrogen supressor
c) aromatase inhibitor
b) estrogen suppressor
Restoring arm function on the affected side after mastectomy & axillary lymph node dissection is one of the most important goals of nursing activities. The womann should be placed in:

a) flat with arm elevated on a pillow & restricted flexion & extension of fingers in the recovery room

b) semi fowlers position, arm elevated on pillow & flexion & extension of fingers should begin in recvery
b) semi fowlers position, arm elevated on pillow & flexion & extension of fingers should begin in recvery
After a mastectomy, the goal of all exercise is a gradual return to full range of motion:

a) before leaving the recovery room
b) in 1-2 weeks

c) in 2-4 weeks

d) in 4-6 weeks
d) in 4-6 weeks
Drains used in conjunction with breast augmentation or reduction are generally removed when drainage is:

a) under 10ml per day
b) under 20ml per day
c) under 40ml per day
c) under 50ml per day
b) under 20ml per day
A woman can usually expect to return to her normal activities following an augmentation or reduction withing:

a) 2-3 days
b) 1-2 weeks
c) 2-3 weeks
d) 4-6 weeks
c) 2-3 weeks
The nurse teaches the patient that BSE involves both the palpation of the breast tissue &:

a) palpation of the cervical lymph nodes
b) hard squeezing of the breast tissue
c) a mammogram to evaluate breast tissue
d) inspectin of the breasts for any changes
d) inspectin of the breasts for any changes
An occupational health nurse is planning a program on BSE for women in the company. To best promote learning & compliance, the nurse includes:

a) a movie that demonstrates the procedure of BSE
b) distribution of detailed written instructions for use at home
c) explanations emphasizing the value of early detection
d) an opportunity to practice BSE on themselves with individual guidance from the nurse
d) an opportunity to practice BSE on themselves with individual guidance from the nurse
In teaching a patient w/ painful fibrocystic breast changes about the condition, the nurse explains that:

a) all discrete breast lumps must be bipsied to rule out malignant changes
b) symptoms will probably subside following menopause unl;ess hormone replacemnet therapy is used
c) the lumps will become progressivly larger & more painful eventually neccessitating surgical removal
d) restrictions of coffee & chocolate & suppliments of vit E may relieve discomfort for many patients
d) restrictions of coffee & chocolate & suppliments of vit E may relieve discomfort for many patients
While discussing risk factors for breast cancer with a group of women, the nurse stresses that the greatest known risk factor is:

a) being a woman over the age of 40
b) experiencing menstruation for 40 years or more
c) using estrogen replacement therapy during menopause
d) having a paternal grandmother w/post menopausal breast cancer
a) being a woman over the age of 40
A patient has an excisional biopsy of a breast nodule that is positive for cancer. The nurse explains that of the other tests done to determine the risk for cancer reocurrence or spread, the result that supports the most favorable prognosis is:

a) cells with low S-phase fractions
b) absence of an HER 2/neu genetic marker
c) absence of axillary lymph node involvment
d) estrogen & progesterone receptor-positive tumors
c) absence of axillary lymph node involvment
A patient diagnosed w/breast cancer has been offered the treatment choice of breast conservation surgery (lumpectomy) with radiation or a modified radical mastectomy. When questioned by the patient about these options, the nurse informs the patient that the lumpectomy w/radiation:

a) preserves the normal appearance & sensitivity of the breast
b) provides a shorter TX period w/fewer long term complications
c) has about the same 10-year survival rate as the modified radical mastectomy
d) reduces the fear & anxiety that accompany the diagnosis & TX of cancer
c) has about the same 10-year survival rate as the modified radical mastectomy
Postoperatively the nurse teaches the patient with a modified radical mastectomy to prevent lymphedema by:

a) using a sling to keep the arm flexed at the side
b) exposing the arm to sunlight to increase circulation
c) wrapping the arm with elastic bandage during the night
d) avoiding uneccessary trauma such as venipuncture or blood pressure measurements on the affected side
d) avoiding uneccessary trauma such as venipuncture or blood pressure measurements on the affected side
To prevent capsular formation following a breast reconstruction w/implants, the nurse teaches the patient to:

a) gently massage the area around the implant
b) bind the breasts tightly w/elastic bandages
c) exercise the arm on the affected side to promote drainage
d) avois strenuous exercise until the implant healing has occurred
a) gently massage the area around the implant