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65 Cards in this Set
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Categorical vs Continuous Date types? (what are the sub categories?)

Categorical: Nominal (hair color) and Ordinal (pain scale, high med., low)
Continuous: Interval (rank/order, temp, but no true zero), Ratio (has true zero, eg mass in kg) 

What is dichotomos data?

two mutually exclusive possibilities


what is discrete data?

integers only


When use chi test? (ie what data type?)

categorical  hair color, etc


When use ttest?

with continuous data (blood pressure levels, etc)


This is calculated as c/(a+c)

Falsenegative error rate


This is the ability of a test to detect a disease when it is present

Sensitivity


This defines normal and abnormal test results

cutoff point


this is the tendency of a measure to be correct on average

accuracy


this is calculated as a/(a+c)

sensitivity


this is the ability of a test to exclude a disease when it is absent

specificity


this is a nondifferential error

random error


the closer this is to the upper left corner of an ROC curve, the better it is

cutoff point.


This is an analytic study in which the outcomes were deterimed prior to the exposure being determined

Casecontrol


this is an analystical study in which the outcomes were determined some time after the exposure/intervention was determined.

cohort/followup


an analytical study in which the population is surveyed at a single point in time for risk factors and disease outcomes

crosssectional


an analytical study in which the intervention is randomly allocated

randomized control trial


What measure of association do you use in casecontrol studies?

Odds Ratio


What is performance bias?

It is systematic differences in care the provided to intervention and control group.


What is cointervention?

When members of comparison group change habits that change risk of outcome.


What is effect size?

The difference in outcomes observed between treatment/control groups.


What is the difference between reliability and validity?

Reliablity is the degree to which measurements are reproducible. Validity is the degree to which results = true values.


What is internal validity? External?

Internal = the freedom from bias, random error, confounding variables
External = the generalizability of the measurements (relevance/applicability) 

What is retrieval bias?

Investigator conducting review selects studies that support hypothesis (or are otherwise biased)


What is reporting bias?

Investigator of original study only report data that supports view (e.g. drug sponsored). The tendency to underreport unexpected or undesirable experimental results while being more trusting of expected/desirable results.


What is publication bias?

Publishing only studies with statistically significant results make it to the journals.


Can confounding be transmitted into a meta analysis?

Yes


What's up with the funnel plot? Why does it narrow at the top?

Bc the yaxis is the size of the study and as you go up, variance decreases as you improve statistical power.


What is systematic error?

When variations in measurement are predictable/biased (i.e. there is consistent variablility between 'true' and 'study' samples). Results in reduced accuracy.


What is random error?

It is 'noise' that reduces precision of measurements (fluctuations due to sampling variability around a true value).


What is measurement bias?

When analysis of outcomes is influenced by knowledge of treatment group


What is confounding?

It is the influence of variables that may be responsible for association/effect.


What is the Hawthorne Effect?

When people act differently when they know they are being watched.


What is allocation bias?

When investigators choose nonrandom method of assignment


What is recall bias?

people are more likely to think/recall previous risk factors associated with adverse event than those who are unaffected


What is healthy use bias?

When pts who adhere to preventive therapies may be more likely to engage in a broad spectrum of healthy lifestyle  not representative of general population.


How is Kappa Coefficient used to reduce error?

It's an estimate of interrater reliability


What is the definition of risk?

The proportion of persons who are unaffected at beginning of a study period but undergo risk event during study period (proportion affected of susceptible known population over time)


What are two examples of probability?

Inicidence (risk) and prevalence


What is the equation for odds?

p/(1p)
The probablity of event divided by probability of no event. 

What is an example of a study that uses odds ratios?

Casecontrol


What is the equation for risk ratio (relative risk)?

(incidence in exposed)/(incidence in unexposed)


What is the equation for odds ratio?

(odds of exposure in cases)/(odds of exposure in controls)


Set up a table and calculate risk ratios and odds ratios

Now


How do you calculate relative risk difference (RRD)?

(EER  CER)/(CER)


How do you calculate Absolute Risk Difference?

CEREER


How does interval data differ from ratio data?

Interval data does not have a true zero  e.g. celsius
Ratio data has a true zero  e.g. kilograms. 

How do you calculate Betaerror? What is Beta usually set at?

It's power; Simply, Power = 1Beta. Usually set at 0.2 or 20%


When calculating specificity and sensitivity, is it on left or right column?

1. Sensitivity is on the left
2. Specificity is on the rt 

Set up a table and calculate sensitivity and specificity

do it


What is the definition of sensitivity? How is it used in screening methods?

Its the probability that a person with disease will have a positive result. Used to screen IN diseases with low prevalence.


What is the definition of specificity? How is it used in screening methods?

It's the probability that a person without disease will have a negative result. Used for confirmatory test after a positive screen test.


What is the difference between a screening test and a diagnostic test?

Screening = detect disease in asymptomatic individuals
Diagnostic test = confirm or rule out suspected disease in symptomatic individuals 

The likelihood of disease given a positive or negative test depends on:

Disease prevalence and the test's properties


What the definition of a positive likelihood ratio?

It is how many times more (or less) likely a positive test result is found in diseased, as compared to nondiseased, individuals:
(True positive rate)/(false positive error rate) 

What is the def of a negative likelihood ratio?

How many times more (or less) likely a negative test result is found in nondiseased, as compared to diseased, individuals (false neg error rate)/(true neg rate)


What is the def of PPV?

Positive predictive value is the probability of disease given a positive test resutl


What is NPV?

The negative predictive value is the probability of no disease given a negative test result.


With respect to PPV and NPV, as prevalence goes up, does PPV and NPV go up or down?

PPV goes up and NPV goes down


What is primary prevention?

Measures/activities to prevent disease from occurring


What is secondary prevention?

Early interventions/screens of disease to prevent progression or reduce disability


What is tertiary prevention?

Treatment/rehabilitation once disease has occurred to minimize sequelae or recurrence.


What is spectrum bias?

Study population has higher disease prevalence and/or severity than typical population


What is lead time bias?

Detecting disease earlier appears to increase duration of survival fictitiously.


What is length time bias?

Screening more likely to catch case that progresses slowly from disease onset to symptoms.
