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47 Cards in this Set

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Membranes - Serosal
like serum, watery. (i.e. the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum)
Membranes - Cuaneous
Skin
Membranes - Mucous
Mucous (adjective) to describe membranes that produce mucus (noun)
Skeletal Muscle
voluntary and striated
Cardiac Muscle
involuntary and striated
Smooth Muscle
involuntary and not striated
Neuron
Major cell of the nervous system. Nerve Cell. Has a prominent nucleus (with DNA) with nucleolus (with RNA).
Body of Neuron
soma
Neuron - Axon
Long Branch of Neuron
Neuron - Dendrites
Shorter Branches of Neuron (sunlike rays)
Neuron - Telodendria
Dendrite-like branches at the end of the Axon (long branch of Neuron) (telo = end)
Neuron - Synaptic Knobs
Knobs at the end of telodendria
Neuron - Synapses
Spaces between Synaptic Knobs
Integumentary System
Cutaneous Membrane - skin, also called integument. An organ system which enables a rapid assessment of health.
How many mutations must skin go through to have cancer?
Seven Mutations
How long does it take for skin to completely replace itself?
30 days or so, approximately a month.
How many "layers" does skin have?
Two layers, the epidermis and the dermis.
Integumentary System - Epidermis
Top layer of skin. Avascular cells (no vessels). Epithelia.
Integumentary System - Dermis
Under the epidermis, connective tissue, fibrous
Integumentary System - Hyperdermis
Under the Dermis, subcutaneous, NOT skin, but fat and blood fessels. It has arteries to diffuse nutrients to surface and veins to pick up and carry away waste.
Integumentary System

Dermal Papilla
Dermis, looks like an egg crate mattress. Dermal papilla fibers meets with epidermal ridges so it stays together.
Integumentary System
Epidermial Ridge
Keeps epidermis from sliding off. Skin Cells in top are dead already.
Integumentary System

Papillary Plexus
Epidermis gets its nutrients from this. Plex means group. Arteries feed capillaries and veins drain capillaries in the dermal papilla.
Integumentary System

Stratum
Layers of skin
Integumentary System
Stratum I - Stratum Basale
Base layer, 3-5 cells thick. Also called stratum germaintuum (germinating or dividing; contains melanocytes (protein for melanin), merkel cell (deep pressure triggered, touch, wired to neurons). Lots of mitosis in this layer. Yongest cells.
Integumentary System
Stratum II - Stratum Spinosum
Under microscope looked "spiny" in the old days because of dehydration, but it is NOT spiny. It contains Keratoinocytes and Langerhans cells (immune system). 8-10 cells thick.
Integumentary System
Stratum III - Stratum Granulosum
3-5 cells thick, contains keratohyalin, a soft, gooey protein which is a keratinocyte.
Integumentary System
Stratum IV - Stratum Lucidum
Clear or "Glassy Layer", contains eleidin, which is a keratinocyte. It's protein that is a bit firmer than keratohyalin but not as firrm as keratin.
Integumentary System
Stratum V - Stratum Corneum
"Crown or Top" layer of skin, contains dead cells and keratin. Keratin is "horny" protein (like rhino horn), hair and nails are made from it, too.
What are the Keratinocytes?
Keratohyali -->Eleidin --> Keratin
Thin Skin
found on ears, lips, eyelids, it is the thinnest skin. The epidermal layer doesn't have a visible Stratum Lucidum as seen through light microscope. It's there, but a cell or less thick.
Thick Skin
All 5 layers of skin, including a visible (on microscope) stratum lucidum.
Thickest skin on palmar and plantar areas.
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Cyanosis
Abnormal condition of blue skin; caused by high concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and low concentration of Oxygen (O2).
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Erythemia
Abnormal condition of red skin; caused by hyperoxemia (CO + O)
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Jaundice or Xanthochromic
Abnormal condition of yellow skin, due to bilirubin. Part of breaking down blood hemoglobin, catabolism creates bilirubin removed by liver. Preemies born before liver develops sometimes hae this. You can see yellow in bruises, easy bruising means Vitamin C deficiency.
Colors the skin Can Turn

Hypercarotinemia
Abnormal condition of orange skin, caused by overding it with the Carotene (which is used to make Vitamin A) found in Carrots.
Skin Problems

Scalded Skin Syndrome
Associated with Anorexia, skin turns black and peels off (necrosis) because the tissue dies. Skin also experiences necrosis in the case of burns.
Function of oil glands
Oil producing glands on scalp act like anti-biotics to block bacteria from getting into the hair shaft.
What is dandruff?
It's a fungal infection of the scalp.
Lamellated Corpuscle
pacinian pressure receptor, very deep in skin.
What is hair?
Hair is dead skin, as if layers were made into a tube with the dead stuff inside the follicle.
Piloerector muscle
Arector pipi, hair stands on end, for size enhancement (think puffed-up cat) when adrenaline is released.
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Cyanosis
Abnormal condition of blue skin; caused by high concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and low concentration of Oxygen (O2).
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Erythemia
Abnormal condition of red skin; caused by hyperoxemia (CO + O)
Colors the Skin Can Turn

Jaundice or Xanthochromic
Abnormal condition of yellow skin, due to bilirubin. Part of breaking down blood hemoglobin, catabolism creates bilirubin removed by liver. Preemies born before liver develops sometimes hae this. You can see yellow in bruises, easy bruising means Vitamin C deficiency.
Colors the skin Can Turn

Hypercarotinemia
Abnormal condition of orange skin, caused by overding it with the Carotene (which is used to make Vitamin A) found in Carrots.
Skin Problems

Scalded Skin Syndrome
Associated with Anorexia, skin turns black and peels off (necrosis) because the tissue dies. Skin also experiences necrosis in the case of burns.