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43 Cards in this Set

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Exocrine Gland
Ducted gland (i.e. sweat glands), secretion of which is placed on neighboring epithelia
Endocrine Gland
Ductless gland (i.e. ovary), secretion of which is placed in the blood stream to reach a remote target (like testosterone from testes grows facial hair)
Gland
Secreting cell or cells in the epithelia
Collagen
A protein in the connective tissue that is stronger than steel (think collagen lips = hard)
Glands - Exocrine

Holocrine
Think "The whole damn cell breaks loose". Lots of Mitosis (i.e. oil glands on head)
Glands - Exocrine

Merocrine
With exocitosis, releases secretions into duct (i.e. sweat glands secreting salty sweat made of electrolytes and water).
Mer = think "mermaids" live in saltwater
Glands - Exocrine

Apocrine
Think "A" for Apocrine = "A" for Armpit
Secretes electrolytes, saltwater, cytoplasm (which has nutrients, so bacteria grows and produces odor) In hairy areas (hair traps pheromones) for sexual attraction. The breast is a modified apocrine gland.
Features of Connective Tissue
Specialized Cells (do 1 job well); Matrix of Extracellular Protein Fibers (fibrous) and Ground Substance (gluey or resin-like); Never exposed to environment outside body, highly vascular (blood vessels)
Functions of Connective Tissue
Structural Framework; Transporting Fluids; Protection of organs; Supporting, Surrounding, Interconnecting other tissues; Store energy; Defending against microbes
Perspiration - Sensible
You can feel the sweat
measured in liters
Perspiration - Insensible
You can't feel it. About 500 ml per day (about a coffee cup worth)
Use a Bridge Building Metaphor to describe Matrix
Extracelluar protein fibers are like rebar, covered with ground substance which is like concrete. Gives strength and flex, like the skeleton.
Rickets
A disease of failure to mineralize bone, has to do with lack of Calcium and Vitamin D. Bones of legs cannot hold body weight so they bow out.
Scurvy
Bone shatter, not enough Collagen (need for Vitamin C) (think Vitamin "C" and "C"ollagen). Was cured by Captain Cook recommending sailors eat limes. English sailors are still called "limeys"
What proportions of what substances make up the skeleton?
1/2 calcium
1/3 collagen
How is Connective Tissue Proper categorized (two types).
Loose (fat/adipose)
Dense (regular/irregular)
Connective Tissue Proper -Specialized Cells

Melanocytes
Cell for production of the pigment Melanin. They are depicted as little umbrellas with their protective arms outstretched. Dark/light skinned people may have same number of melanocytes but different amount of pigment.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Marophages
These "Big Eater" phagocytes are key players in immune response to infectious microorganisms. Blood monocytes migrate into tissues of the body and there differentiate (Evolve) into macrophages. They can be fixed or free in the connective tissue.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Plasma Cels
Escaped from bloodstream, secretes antibodies.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Fat Cells - Adipose Cells
Triglycerides. Nucleas shoved off to one side, full and halo-like.
Connective Tissue Proper- Specialized Cells

Mast Cells (mastocytes/labrocytes)
Escaped from bloodstream, now in tissue. Releases histamines and heparin which cause swelling and fluid leakage from cells as a form of ridding the body of a threat (perceived or real). Involved in allergic reactions.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Mesenchymal Cell - Stem Cell
Undifferentiated cells from mesenchyme, can grow into many types of cells when needed. Renew and repair tissues.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Fibroblast
Makes and secretes out collagen - Blasts out collagen fibers.
Connective Tissue Proper - Specialized Cells

Lymphocyte
Responsible for immune response. B Cell (Bone - makes antibodies that atatck bacteria and toxins) T Cells (Thymus - attack body cells themselves when they've been taken over by viruses/cancer). NK Cells (Natural Killer kills cells if "banner" absent)
Connective Tissue Proper - Fibers

Reticular and Elastic Fibers
Proteins. Reticular (Collagen Fibers for rigidity) replace Elastic (Elastin - Elasticity) fibers sometimes when damaged. Skin darker in that place.
Fluid Connective Tissue - Types
Lymph and Blood are types of Fluid Connective Tissue
Fluid Connective Tissue - Blood - Specialized Cells

RBCs (Red Blood Cells)
Carry Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide through the blood. Hemoglobin makes them look red. Also called erythrocytes. Disc shaped.
Fluid Connective Tissue - Blood - Specialized Cells

WBCs
Also called Leukocytes, their primary function is defense
Fluid Connective Tissue - Blood - Specialized Cells

Platelets
Irregular, disc-shaped element in blood that assists in clotting. They clump (aggregate) together. They are actually fragments of large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes.
Fluid Connective Tissue - Blood - Ground Substance

Plasma
The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, makes up half the volume. Devoid of cells and has not clotted (unlike serum). Contains antibodies and other proteins.
Fluid Connective Tissue - Blood - Fibers

Fibrinogen
Soluble balls of protein that can make fibers of Fibrin (the essence of a normal blood clot).
Fluid Connective Tissue - Lymph - Specialized Cells

Lymphocytes
T, B, NK, Plasma Cells
Fluid Connective Tissue - lymph - Ground Substance

Lymphatic Fluid
Almost colorless fluid, travels through lyphatic vessels in lymph system, carries cells that help fight infections/disease.
Fluid Connective Tissue - Lymph - Fibers

Fibrinogen
Fibrinogen is the "genesis" of Fibrin (the essence of a normal blood clot)
Supporting Connective Tissue - 2 Types
Cartilage Matrix and Bone Matrix
Supporting Connective Tissue

Cartilage Matrix
Gel with varied fiber types
Supporting Connective Tissue

Bone Matrix
Mineral Deposits (Calcium salts = calcified)
Brown Fat
Brown adipose tissue, rapid source of energy for infants, 5% of their body weight. Around Shoulder blades. Packed with mitochondria, which are energy factories, for heat. Rich supply of blood vessels. Gone by adulthood
Adipose Tissue
How the body stores energy, triglycerides. Yellow in color.
Bone composition

Periosteum
Thin layers of protective connective tissue around bone itself.
Bone composition

Cartilage
Cushion at the ends of bones, over periosteum. Covered with perichondrium.
Bone composition

Perichondrium
Goes around cartilage at the end of bone
Bone Cell composition

Osteocytes
Canaliculi (mini-canals to supply blood) Lacuna (mini-"lagoons" that blood runs into; matrix and fibers