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32 Cards in this Set

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MIOSIS
Pupil constriction (miotic)
MYDRIASIS
Pupil dilation (mydriatic)
Sympathetic Nervous System response
MYOPIA
Near sightedness. Inability to focus. The light is focused in front of the retina. Corrected with concave (divergent) lens.
HYPEROPIA / HYPERMETROPIA
Far sightedness.
Refraction
Bending of light rays as it passes from one medium into and through another. More at cornea than lens.
Divergence
Light rays of viewed object open (diverge) the closer it is to the eyeball. 20 feet usually critical distance.
CONVERGENCE
Eyeballs medially rotate (inward) to view object as it becomes clearer.
ACCOMMODATION
Changes in focus from distance to close vision (under 20 ft.)
1-ciliary muscle contracts
2-miosis
3-convergence
PRESBYOPIA
Inability to accommodate. Bifocals.
ARGYLL-ROBERTSON EYE
Syphyllis (prostitute's pupil)
"she Accommodates but doesn't React" (to light)
Lesion in superior colliculus of midbrain
ASTIGMATISM
Unequal curvature in the lens or cornea resulting in blurred vision.
CATARACTS
Opacities (clouding) of the lens resulting in loss of sight.
PUPILLARY REFLEX
Constriction of a pupil when light is shined into eye.
CONSENSUAL REFLEX
Constriction of both pupils when light shined into eye.
What is wrong if light shined in RIGHT Eye and only the LEFT pupil constricts?
Right CN III lesion.
If the light is shined in either eye but only the left pupil constricts, it's Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor).
What is wrong if light is shined in the LEFT eye and only the LEFT pupil constricts?
Right CN III Lesion.
If the light is shined in either eye but only the left pupil constricts, it's Cranial Nerve III (Oculomotor).
What if light is shined in the RIGHT eye and NO pupil constricts?
Right CN II Lesion.
Cranial Nerve II (Optic Nerve)
What if light is shined in the LEFT eye and both pupils constrict?
Right CN II Lesion
Cranial Nerve II (Optic Nerve)
PALPEBRAE
eyelids
MEDIAL CANTHUS
SECTION OF UPPER EYELID with lacrimal drainage system and medial canthal tendon, a fibrous extension of the tarsus, which inserts into lacrimal crest of the lacrimal bone. Surrounds lacrimal sac, involved with lacrimal pump.
LATERAL CANTHUS
SECTION OF UPPER EYELID (PALPEBRAE) superior to the medial canthus along the orbital rim. Deep to the eyelid skin and orbicularis muscle, extension of tarsus. helps form lateral retinaculum.
CONJUNCTIVA
BLOODSHOT EYES (vascular unlike cornea, so heals better). Transparent mucous membrane covering inner surface of eyelid (palpebral) and anterior surface of eyeball (bulbar) except cornea. A closed system.
LACRIMAL APPARATUS
Lacrimal (gland) and series of ducts which drain tears into nasal cavity.
LACRIMAL GLAND
Part of lacrimal (tear) apparatus, size/shape of almond in medial corner of orbit. Cleanse, lubricte, O2, nutrients to conjunctiva, prevent infection with lysozyme.
LACRYMAL DUCTS
Excretory for tears.
NASOLACRYMAL DUCT
Carries tears to inferior meatus of nasal cavity so we swallow them. Lots of tears = runny nose. Clogged when we have a cold so eyes water.
EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES and their Cranial Nerves
SUPERIOR (rollup), MEDIAL(move in), and INFERIOR RECTUS(roll down), as well as INFERIOR OBLIQUE (up and out) are CN III, Oculomotor. LATERAL RECTUS (move out) is CN VI, Abcducens. Superior Oblique (depresses and moves out) is CN IV, Trochlear.
What is a mnemonic device for the nervous control of extrinsic eye muscles?
(LR6, SO4)3
What cranial nerve is like a "hook" which closes the eye (nmenonic device)?
CN VII (the number seven looks l ike a hook).
What cranial nerve is like a pillar which opens the eye (nmemonic device)?
CN III (the roman numeral III looks like a pillar, which would hold the eye open.
SCLERA
White of the eye
CORNEA
Clear