Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/160

Click to flip

160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ABO
blood groups
ADL
activities of daily living
AHF
antihemophilic factor
AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALL
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
AML
acute myelogenous leukemia
CBC, cbc
complete blood cell count
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CMV
cytomegalovirus
diff
differential count (WBCs)
DIC
disseminated intravascular coagulation
DOB
date of birth
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (commonly used in AIDS diagnosis)
ESR
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Agency
H & P
history and physical
HAV
hepatitis
Hb, Hgb
hemoglobin
HBV
hepatitis B virus
HCT
hematocrit
HCV
hepatitis C virus
HDN
hemolytic disease of the newborn
HDV
hepatitis D virus
HIPAA
health information portability accountability act
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
HLA
human leukocyte antigens
HPF
high-power field
hx, Hx
history
IgA, IgD, IgG, IgM, IgE
immunoglobulins
INR
Internal Normalized Ratio
LE
lupus erythematosus
LPF
low-power field
MCH
mean corpuscular hemoglobin (average amount of hemoglobin in each RBC)
MCHC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (amount of hemoglobin per unit of blood)
MCV
mean corpuscular volume (average size of individual red cells)
OP
outpatient
PCV
packed cell volume
PMN
polymorphonuclear
PT
prothrombin time (also physical therapist)
PTT
partial thromboplastin time
RBC
red blood cell, red blood count
Rh
rhesus factor in blood
RPR
rapid plasma reagin (blood test for syphilis)
SSN
social security number`
STD
sexually transmitted disease
TSS
toxic shock syndrome
WBC
white blood cell, white blood cell count
WMD
weapons of mass destruction
WNV
West Nile Virus
An acute disease characterized by high fever, lesions of the mucous membranes and skin, and a sharp drop in circulating granular white blood cells.`
agranulocytosis
a tissue or organ obtained from one member of a species and grafted to a genetically dissimilar member of the same species.
allograft
A condition where the red blood cells are unequal in size, evident on blood smear.
anisocytosis
Unable to form or regenerate tissue.
aplastic
a tissue or organ that is grafted into a new position on the body of the individual from which it was removed.
autologous graft
cell, especially a white blood cell, having granules that stain readily with basic dyes.
basophil
A severe, sometimes fatal food poisoning caused by eating food infected with the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin. The bacterium grows in food that has been improperly preserved.
botulism
The primary lesion of syphilis; a hard, nonsensitive, dull red papule or area of infiltration that begins at the site of infection after an interval of 10 to 30 days.
chancre
An infectious, sometimes fatal disease of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is spread from contaminated water and food and causes severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration.
cholera
A genus of rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria including the nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in soil and those causing botulism and tetanus.
Clostridium
1. An unattached body cell, such as a blood or lymph cell.
2. A rounded, globular mass of cells, such as the pressure receptor on certain nerve endings.
corpuscle
an anticoagulant (gen name warfarin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
coumadin
An acute infectious disease caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae, characterized by the production of a systemic toxin and the formation of a false membrane on the lining of the mucous membrane of the throat and other respiratory passages, causing difficulty in breathing, high fever, and weakness. The toxin is particularly harmful to the tissues of the heart and central nervous system.
diphtheria
a malfunction or abnormal condition, esp. an imbalance of the constituents of the blood.
dyscrasia
A method of separating substances, especially proteins, and analyzing molecular structure based on the rate of movement of each component in a colloidal suspension while under the influence of an electric field.
electrophoresis
A type of white blood cell containing cytoplasmic granules that are easily stained by eosin or other acid dyes.`
eosinophil
A herpesvirus that is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. It is also associated with various types of human cancers.
Epstein-Barr virus
production of RBCs
erythropoiesis
An elastic, insoluble, whitish protein derived from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin and forming an interlacing fibrous network in the coagulation of blood.
fibrin
A protein in the blood plasma that is essential for the coagulation of blood and is converted to fibrin by thrombin and ionized calcium. Also called factor I.
fibrinogen
An enzyme that hydrolyzes peptides and esters of arginine and histidine and converts fibrin to soluble products.
fibrinolysin
A severe hemolytic disease of a fetus or newborn caused by production of maternal antibodies for fetal red blood cells, usually involving Rh incompatibility between the mother and fetus.
erythroblastosis fetalis
A sexually transmitted disease caused by gonococci and affecting mucous membrane chiefly of the genital and urinary tracts, marked by an acute purulent discharge and painful or difficult urination, though women often have no symptoms.
gonorrhea
a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative
Gram stain
Any of a group of white blood cells having granules in the cytoplasm.
granulocyte
The percentage by volume of packed red blood cells in a given sample of blood after centrifugation.
hematocrit
The red respiratory protein of red blood cells that transports oxygen as oxyhemoglobin from the lungs to the tissues, where the oxygen is readily released and the oxyhemoglobin becomes hemoglobin.
hemoglobin
Any of several hereditary blood-coagulation disorders, manifested almost exclusively in males, in which the blood fails to clot normally because of a deficiency or an abnormality of one of the clotting factors.
hemophilia
Being genetically different although belonging to or obtained from the same species, as in tissue grafts.
allogeneic
An infectious, usually fatal disease of warm-blooded animals that is characterized by ulcerative skin lesions, can be transmitted to humans, and is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Also called carbuncle.
anthrax
Hypersensitivity induced by preliminary exposure to a substance and usually producing a contraction of smooth muscle and a dilation of blood vessels.
anaphylaxis
A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood, measured in unit volume concentrations of hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, or red blood cell number.
anemia
A protein substance in blood plasma that participates in and is essential for the blood-clotting process. Most cases of hemophilia are caused by a deficiency of this factor. Also called antihemophilic globulin, factor VIII.
antihemophilic factor
Capable of preventing infection by inhibiting the growth of infectious agents.
antiseptic
An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and most commonly found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder.
calculus
the formation of blood or of blood cells in the living body
hematopoiesis
The red respiratory protein of red blood cells that transports oxygen as oxyhemoglobin from the lungs to the tissues, where the oxygen is readily released and the oxyhemoglobin becomes hemoglobin.
hemoglobin
a glycosaminoglycan sulfuric acid ester that occurs especially in the liver and lungs, that prolongs the clotting time of blood by preventing the formation of fibrin, and that is administered parenterally in the form of its sodium salt in vascular surgery and in the treatment of postoperative thrombosis and embolism
heparin
Stored in mast cells and released by antigen. Responsible for the early symptoms of anaphylaxis. Also present in some venoms.
histamine
derived from or involving organisms of the same species
homologous
Of, relating to, or characterized by an increase in light absorption, especially of ultraviolet light.
hyperchromic
an abnormally large amount of blood in any part of the body.
hyperemia
disease induced in a patient by a physician's activity, manner, or therapy. Used especially of an infection or other complication of treatment.
iatrogenic disease
In an artificial environment outside the living organism
in vitro
within a living organism
in vivo
an acute infectious disease that primarily affects lymphoid tissue. The cause of most cases is the Epstein-Barr virus
infectious mononucleosis
An abnormal increase in the number of circulating red blood cells
erythrocytosis
any of a group of heat-stable soluble basic antiviral glycoproteins of low molecular weight that are produced usually by cells exposed to the action of a virus, sometimes to the action of another intracellular parasite (as a bacterium), or experimentally to the action of some chemicals, and that include some used medically as antiviral or antineoplastic agents
interferon
a neoplastic disease affecting especially the skin and mucous membranes, characterized especially by the formation of pink to reddish-brown or bluish tumorous plaques, macules, papules, or nodules especially on the lower extremities, and formerly limited primarily to elderly men in whom it followed a benign course but now being a major and sometimes fatal disease associated with immunodeficient individuals with AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma
The condition of a cells nucleus being abnormally enlarged
karyomegaly
Surgical removal of a calculus, especially from the urinary tract
lithotomy
The procedure of crushing a stone in the urinary bladder or urethra
lithotripsy
a group of connective tissue disorders primarily affecting women, comprising a spectrum of clinical forms in which cutaneous disease may occur with or without systemic involvement
lupus erythematosis
an abnormally large red blood cell`
macrocyte
any of the mononuclear leukocytes found in the blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues that are responsible for humoral and cellular activity
lymphocyte
a phagocytic tissue cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system that may be fixed or freely motile, is derived from a monocyte, and functions in the protection of the body against infection and noxious substances
macrophage
An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating, caused by the parasitic infection of red blood cells by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, which is transmitted by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito
malaria
an acute infectious disease occurring mostly in children, characterized by catarrhal and febrile symptoms and an eruption of small red spots; rubeola
measles
abnormally large red blood cell (associated with pernicious anemia)
megalocyte
the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available
metabolism
an abnormally small red blood cell
microcyte
a blood disorder characterized by the presence of abnormally small red blood cells in the blood; often associated with anemia
microcytosis
a large, circulating white blood cell, formed in bone marrow and in the spleen, that ingests large foreign particles and cell debris
monocyte
gland that secretes mucous
mucoid gland
an acute contagious disease caused by a paramyxovirus (genus Rubulavirus) and marked by fever and by swelling especially of the parotid gland
mumps
the presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney
nephrolithiasis
a granulocyte that is the chief phagocytic white blood cell
neutrophil
the central region in a prokaryotic cell, as a bacterium, that contains the chromosomes and that has no surrounding membrane
nucleoid
A disease in which there is a structural change to some tissue or organ of the body
organic disease
a test for detecting coagulation defects
partial thromboplastin time
coagulation factor III
thromboplastin
coagulation factor II
prothrombin
Immunity acquired by the transfer of antibodies from another individual, as through injection or placental transfer to a fetus.
passive immunity
Immunity resulting from the development of antibodies in response to the presence of an antigen, as from vaccination or exposure to an infectious disease.
Active Immunity
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
phagocytosis
a severe bacterial infection caused by "Yersinia pestis", which occurs both endemically and epidemically worldwide
plague
The clear, yellowish fluid portion of blood, lymph, or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended
plasma
A red blood cell of irregular shape
poikilocyte
A highly infectious viral disease that chiefly affects children and, in its acute forms, causes inflammation of motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem, leading to paralysis, muscular atrophy, and often deformity (aka: infantile paralysis)
poliomyelitis
A condition marked by an abnormally large number of red blood cells in the circulatory system
polycythemia (aka: erythrocytosis)
polycythemia of unknown cause that is characterized by increase in total blood volume and accompanied by nosebleed, distension of the circulatory vessels, and enlargement of the spleen
polycythemia vera
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
polymorph
aving a lobed nucleus. Used especially of neutrophil white blood cells
polymorphonuclear
the preventing of disease
prophylaxis
Any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans
protozoans
an immune reaction against a transplanted organ or tissue
rejection
Any of various gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, many of which are pathogenic causing food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in humans and other infectious diseases in domestic animals.
Salmonella
The presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or tissues
sepsis
A systemic disease caused by the multiplication of microorganisms in the blood
septicemia (aka: blood poisoning)
A passage between two natural body channels, such as blood vessels, especially one created surgically to divert or permit flow from one pathway or region to another; a bypass
shunt
A chronic, usually fatal inherited form of anemia marked by crescent-shaped red blood cells, occurring almost exclusively in Blacks, and characterized by fever, leg ulcers, jaundice, and episodic pain in the joints
sickle cell anemia
An acute, highly infectious, often fatal disease (also called variola) caused by a poxvirus and characterized by high fever and aches with subsequent widespread eruption of papules that blister, produce pus, and form scabs that leave permanent pockmarks
smallpox
A small spherical red blood cell, characteristic of hereditary spherocytosis and of certain hemolytic anemias
spherocyte
a liquid that is comparable to serum but contains less dissolved material, that is secreted from the blood into the lateral ventricles of the brain by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles to the spaces between the meninges about the brain and spinal cord, and is resorbed into the blood through the subarachnoid sinuses, and that serves chiefly to maintain uniform pressure within the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
Any of various slender, spiral, motile bacteria -- many of which are pathogenic, causing syphilis, relapsing fever, yaws, and other diseases
spirochete
A spherical gram-positive parasitic bacterium usually occurring in clusters and causing boils, septicemia, and other infections.
Staphylococcus
A spherical gram-positive bacterium normally found on the skin and mucous membranes and in the digestive tract of mammals. One type, Group A, is a common pathogen in humans and causes various infections, including strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, and some types of impetigo
Streptococcus
The formation or discharge of pus
suppurative
A brief loss of consciousness caused by a sudden fall of blood pressure or failure of the cardiac systole, resulting in cerebral anemia
syncope
A chronic infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum, either transmitted by direct contact, usually in sexual intercourse, or passed from mother to child in utero, and progressing through three stages characterized respectively by local formation of chancres, ulcerous skin eruptions, and systemic infection that leads to general paresis
syphilis
An acute, often fatal disease that is characterized by spasmodic contraction of voluntary muscles, especially one occurring in the neck and jaw, and that is caused by the neurotoxin Clostridium tetani, which typically infects the body through a deep wound. Also called lockjaw
tetanus
A plasma protein present in tissues, platelets, and white blood cells necessary for the coagulation of blood and, in the presence of calcium ions, necessary for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
thromboplastin
A sound in one ear or both ears, such as buzzing, ringing, or whistling, occurring without an external stimulus and usually caused by a specific condition, such as an ear infection, the use of certain drugs, a blocked auditory tube or canal, or a head injury
tinnitus
A condition in which the blood contains toxins produced by body cells at a local source of infection or derived from the growth of microorganisms
toxemia
A substance that has been treated to destroy its toxic properties but that retains the capacity to stimulate production of antitoxins, used in immunization
toxoid
A vaginal inflammation caused by a trichomonad (Trichomonas vaginalis) and resulting in a refractory discharge and itching
trichomoniasis (commonly affects cows)
An infectious disease caused by a bacillis that chiefly affects rodents but can also be transmitted to humans, in whom it causes intermittent fever and swelling of lymph nodes
tularemia
An infectious febrile illness usually spread by contamination of food, milk or water supplies with Salmonella typhi, either directly by sewage, indirectly by flies or by faulty personal hygiene
Typhoid
the pendent fleshy lobe in the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate
uvula
A genus of gram-negative, motile, S-shaped or comma-shaped bacteria some species of which are saprophytes in salt and fresh water and in soil, while others are parasites or pathogens
vibrio
a crystalline anticoagulant that inhibits the production of prothrombin by vitamin K and is used as a rodent poison . Its sodium salt is used especially in the prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disease
warfarin