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54 Cards in this Set

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The ____(1) are the pacemaker of the ovarian cycle.
Ovaries
This hormone is needed to allow follicles to mature even though ovaries start process...
FSH
When FSH levels slightly drop, there is an increase in ____(1), this is weak negative feedback.
(1) Estrogen
Once threshold is met and production of estrogen is high, there is a surge of the hormone __(1).
(1) LH
When the levels of this hormone(1) is high, it prevents an LH surge, making a second ____(2) impossible during normal luteal phase.
(1) Progesterone
(2) Ovulation
prevents an LH surge, prepares uterus for implantation, maintains uterus in this condition, preventing menstruation. What hormone?
Progesterone
Sperm has a window of about ___(1) day(s) to find ovum.
Two days
Ovum has a window of about ___(1) day(s) to find sperm
(1) One Day
Give the path of sperm if male ejaculates without pulling out during coitus(sex) with woman.
Has to travel through vagina -> into cervix -> up through uterus -> into uterine tubes.
On average, (one, under 100, hundreds, thousands, millions, billions) sperm make it into unterine tubes.
Hundreds
Explain the process of fertilizatoin. (include: phase of ovum in cell division, location of happenings)
IN UTERINE TUBE: Ovum finishes meiosis -> nuclei from sperm & egg fuse -> zygote produced ->zygote divides to blastula -> becomes embryo -> Cilia takes about 6 days to move embryo towards uterus.
-Implantation follows...
For implantation, the ___(1) has to digest it's way into ____(2).
(1) embryo
(2) Endometrium
This hormone(1) is from embryo, it maintains corpus luteum so the Corpus L. can continue to produce hormones, particularly ____(2), which is maintained to prevent menstruation and maintain pregnancy.
(1) hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
(2) Progesterone & Estrogen
Pregnancy tests look for presence of ____(1)
(1) hCG (recombinant antibodies actually detect hCG. in pregnancy test)
What is the problem with Bioassays used in the past for pregnancy tests.(other than the sacrifice of animals)
Not effective till after several weeks.
The first trimester of pregnancy is about ____(1) in duration. ____(2) makes hCG. the degeneration of _____(3) is slowed by two hormones ____(4)
(1) 3 months
(2) Embryo
(3) Corpus Luteum
(4) Estrogen and progesterone.
In the __&__(1) trimester of pregnancy, the ____(2) makes estrogen and progesterone.
(1) 2nd and 3rd trimester
(2) Placenta
In all three trimesters of pregnancy, pregnant conditions are maintained due to the hormone(s) ____(1), which block the production of the hormone(s) ____(2)
(1) estrogen & Progesterone
(2) LH and FSH
The whole period of internal development of embryo into fetus is referred to as ____(1) and lasts about ____(2) months.
(1) Gestation
(2) ~ 9.33 months or 40 weeks.
At end of ____(1) trimester labor and delivery occurs. Labor and delivery is also known as ____(2).
(1) 3rd Trimester
(2) Parturition
What is the signal that initiates Parturition in humans?
No one knows the signal...
During parturition, contractions of smooth muscle in wall of ____(1) causes pressure. Pressure sensors induce release of hormone ____(2).
(1) Uterus
(2) Oxytocin
This hormone increases strength of contractions during Parturition...
Oxytocin
Parturition shows an example of (+/-) feedback loop.
Parturition shows an example of Positive(+) feedback loop. (increasingly stronger contractions, uterus and abdominal muscles force out infant.)
The hormone ____(1):
1. Helps to expel infant
2. Helps to expel placenta
3. Contractions after delivery help to reduce bleeding from where placenta has pulled away from uterus.
4. Reduce size of uterus towards pre-pregnancy size.
(1) Oxytocin
What are the roles of oxytocin? (four mentioned in class)
The hormone Oxytocin:
1. Helps to expel infant
2. Helps to expel placenta
3. Contractions after delivery help to reduce bleeding from where placenta has pulled away from uterus.
4. Reduce size of uterus towards pre-pregnancy size.
What is lactation?
Milk production provides nourishment for infant.
____(1) produce milk.
(1) Mammary glands.
A female child has undeveloped reproductive system. At puberty, what hormone causes enlargement of breasts mostly due to adipose tissue, and a slight gland tissue increase...
Estrogen
Prolactin levels first rise during ____(1).
Pregnancy
The hormone(s) causes more breast development and size increase.(mostly due to gland tissue, and some adipose)...
It takes the combination of high estrogen & Prolactin levels.
After pregnancy and birth, ____(1) causes milk production. But there will be no milk secretions if hormones ___(1) and ____(2) are both present.
(1) Prolactin (pulsed)
(2) Progesterone (cannot be present for milk production to occur)
Suckling is infant sucking on mother's nipple, but they don't suck hard enough to get milk from glands. ____(1) causes secretion of two hormones.
(1) Tactile Stimulation (or hearing baby cry)
What two hormones assist in the milk ejection reflex, how do they assist? Which is slower acting, why is it slower?
1. Oxytocin causes smooth muscles to contract and push milk into nipple's canal.
2. Prolactin is slower, stimulates gland to make more milk for next feeding.
What hormone inhibits LH and ovulation?
Prolactin
Which woman is more likely to get pregnant while nursing another infant?
Woman A nurse's on schedule everyday at designated times.
Woman B has a frequently crying baby and feeds it everytime it cries on demand.
Woman A is more likely to get pregnant.
-Nursing baby on demand has stronger contraceptive effect since LH and ovulation are inhibited by Prolactin. (Prolactin needed for milk production and produced in cycles)
A fertilized egg starts off as a single-celled fusion called a ___(1), soon thereafter an ____(2) is formed for first ____(3) months; then it is called a ____(4) for rest of gestation.
(1) zygote
(2) embryo
(3) two months
(4) fetus
For ____(1) weeks, the embryo/fetus is in a sexually indifferent stage where embryo have structures of both sexes.
(1) 11 weeks
During sexually indifferent stage, the embryo/fetus will have two ducts called ____(1) and ____(2) ducts, one will dominate while other doesn't.
(1)Müllerian duct
(2) Wolffian ducts
-If sex chromosomes are XY the gonads will become ____(1) which produce hormone ____(2) at this stage.

-If sex chromosomes are XX the gonads will become ____(3) which produce hormone ____(4)at this stage.
(1) Testes
(2) Testosterone
(3)ovaries
(4) None at this stage
at about 11 weeks of development in pregnancy, the ____(1) begin to differentiate. If sex chromosomes are XY, ____(1) become ____(2) which produce hormone ____(3) in womb. The _____(4) will degenerate, but the _____(5) ducts will produce _____(6).
(1) Gonads (first two blanks)
(2) Testes
(3) Testosterone
(4) Müllerian ducts
(5) Wolffian ducts
(6) Ductus deferens & accessories.
at about 11 weeks of development in pregnancy, the ____(1) begin to differentiate. If sex chromosomes are XX, ____(1) become ____(2) which produce hormone ____(3) in womb. The _____(4) ducts will degenerate, but the _____(5) ducts will produce _____(6).
(1) Gonads (first two blanks)
(2) ovaries
(3) ovaries don't secrete hormone in womb.
(4) Wolffian ducts
(5) Müllerian
(6) uterine tubes and uterus
Regardless of sex chromosomes, what will happen if infant has testes removed or testosterone blocked?
Female structures will develop.
Is it true that developing embryo/fetus is fundamentally female?
Yes its true (developmental switch produces male)
When does reproductive system develop, mature, and become functional in children?
During Puberty
In females puberty is triggered by hormone(s) ___(1), which causes Hormone(s) ____(2), this causes secretion of hormone(s) _____(3). This completes development of reproductive organ.
(1) GnRH
(2) FSH & LH
(3) Estrogen
What is menarche and what two cycles begin from it?
Menarche is 1st menstrual bleeding. Begins ovarian & menstrual cycle.
In males puberty is triggered by hormone(s) ___(1), which causes Hormone(s) ____(2), this causes secretion of hormone(s) _____(3). This completes development of reproductive organ.
(1) GnRH
(2) FSH and LH
(3) Testosterone
At beginning of male puberty, testes start producing ___(1), ____(2) & ____(2) enlarge. And secondary male sex traits like deep voice, facial hair, and muscle mass begin.
(1) sperm
(2) Testes and Genitals enlarge.
This hormone begins masculinization in womb...
Testosterone
The ___(1) cycle drives the ____(2) cycle.
(1) Ovarian Cycle
(2) Menstrual Cycle
Is it true that all gametes are present in women @ birth?
Yes its true
female system cycles approximately every ____(1) days
(1) 28 days
Male system is not cyclic, there are constant levels of hormone(s) _____(1). After puberty, are sperm cells produced (intermittently / continuously).
Male system is not cyclic, there are constant levels of hormone(s) LH and FSH(1). After puberty,sperm cells are produced CONTINUOUSLY.