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75 Cards in this Set

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In male, at beginning of puberty, the hypothalamus releases the hormone ____(1), which stimulates the ___(2) to secrete TWO hormones ___(3).
(1) GnRH
(2) Anterior pituitary
(3) LH and FSH
What effects does the hormone FSH have in males?
FSH stimulates spermatogenesis. (Requires testosterone.)
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
In seminiferous tubules
FSH requires the hormone ___(1) to produce sperm.
(1)FSH requires testosterone. These hormones pair to stimulate formation of sperm.
_____(1) are like "stem-cells" that differentiate to produce sperm cells.
(1) Spermatogonia
____(1) cells provide nutrients to Spermatogenia as they differentiate.
(1) Sertoli cells.
this hormone(1) acts on interstitial cells in testes; it stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone...
(1) LH (Luteinizing hormone)
this hormone(1) maintains sperm production, produces and maintains male sex characteristics.
(1)Testosterone
ICSH (Inters. cell stimulating hormone) is the same thing as the hormone ____(1)
(1) LH
In males what two hormones are released in pulses
GnRH and LH
In male, at beginning of puberty, the hypothalamus releases the hormone ____(1), which stimulates the ___(2) to secrete TWO hormones ___(3).
(1) GnRH
(2) Anterior pituitary
(3) LH and FSH
What effects does the hormone FSH have in males?
FSH stimulates spermatogenesis. (Requires testosterone.)
Where does spermatogensis occur?
In seminiferous tubules
FSH requires the hormone ___(1) to produce sperm.
(1)FSH requires testosterone. These hormones pair to stimulate formation of sperm.
_____(1) are like "stem-cells" that differentiate to produce sperm cells.
(1) Spermatogonia
____(1) cells provide nutrients to Spermatogenia as they differentiate.
(1) Sertoli cells.
this hormone(1) acts on interstitial cells in testes; it stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone...
(1) LH (Luteinizing hormone)
this hormone(1) maintains sperm production, produces and maintains male sex characteristics.
(1)Testosterone
ICSH (Inters. cell stimulating hormone) is the same thing as the hormone ____(1)
(1) LH
In males what two hormones are released in pulses
GnRH and LH.
LH hormone is required for ____(1) production.
(1) testosterone
The ____(1) are partitioned into segments in testes. Tubules empty into meshwork on back of testes called the _____(2).
(1)Seminiferous Tubules
(2) Rete Testis
Sperm from the Rete Testis is sent to _____(1), the ___(1) is a storage area for sperm cells and is also very important in activating sperm cells.
(1) Epididymis
Put this sperm Xport path in order:
(1) Seminal Vesicle (gland)
(2) Urethra
(3) Ejaculatory Duct
(4) Ductus Deferens
Where is the prostate gland?
(4) Ductus Deferens -> (1) Seminal Vesicle (gland) --> (3) Ejaculatory Duct --> (2) Urethra....4,1,3,2.
The prostate gland surrounds ejaculatory duct.
Put this sperm Xport path in order:
(1) Seminal Vesicle (gland)
(2) Urethra
(3) Ejaculatory Duct
(4) Ductus Deferens
Where is the prostate gland?
(4) Ductus Deferens -> (1) Seminal Vesicle (gland) --> (3) Ejaculatory Duct --> (2) Urethra....4,1,3,2.
The prostate gland surrounds ejaculatory duct.
In males, LH hormone is required for ____(1) production.
(1) testosterone
The ____(1) are partitioned into segments in testes. Tubules empty into meshwork on back of testes called the _____(2).
(1)Seminiferous Tubules
(2) Rete Testis
Sperm from the Rete Testis is sent to _____(1), the ___(1) is a storage area for sperm cells and is also very important in activating sperm cells.
(1) Epididymis
Arrange this sperm transport path:
(1) Ejaculatory duct
(2) urethra
(3) seminal vesicle gland
(4)Ductus Deferans
(4)Ductus Deferans -> (3) seminal vesicle gland -> (1) Ejaculatory duct -> (2)urethra
4,3,1,2.
Arrange this sperm Xport path:
(1) Ejaculatory duct
(2) Urethra
(3) Seminal Vesicle gland
(4) ductus deferans
Arrange this sperm Xport path:
(4) ductus deferans -> (3) Seminal Vesicle gland -> (1) Ejaculatory duct ->(2) Urethra
-4,3,1,2
Why are testes not held close to body?
In mammals, sperm development needs to be at temperature 2-3 degrees Celsius lower than core body temp.
What are the components of semen?
Mixture of Liquid and sperm cells.
In semen, what volume percentage is liquid from seminal vesicles and prostate?
>90%
Primary stimulus of erection is...
Tactile stimulation or touching of end of penis.
For an erection, the _____(1) N.S. inhibits ____(2) N.S., allowing vasodilation.
(1) Parasympathetic N.S.
(2) Sympathetic N.S.
Give examples of secondary stimulus of erection.
Memories, fantasies, sights, smells, sounds.
When relaxed, the ____(1) N.S. constricts incoming arteries.
(1)Sympathetic N.S.
Give the mechanism for engorgement(the action of filling penis with blood to cause erection.)
-Mention: N.S., arteries, and veins.
mechanism: Parasympathetic N.S. inhibits sympathetic N.S., this causes arteries to dilate, penis fills with blood, compressing veins.
Inflation of tissues with blood increases and stiffness is known as...
Engorgement
For emission, smooth muscle of ____(1) and _____(2) move sperm cells into urethra, it is now mixed with liquid sectretions.
(1) Epididymis
(2) Ductus Deferens
contractions of muscle around urethra expels semen, this is known as...
Ejaculation
An intense pleasure and feeling of release in an...
ORGASM
What is approximate volume of semen expelled, and how many sperm cells can be released upon ejaculation. (there is much variance)
~3mL of semen expelled, 300 million sperm cells can be released.
Requirements of Female reproductive system:
(1) have to produce ____
(2) provide a site for _____ passage
(3) Provide a site for _____
(4)Provide a site and nutrients for _____
(5)has to deliver infant, parturition.
(6) Provide nourishment for infant after birth.
Requirements of Female reproductive system:
(1) have to produce ova
(2) provide a site for sperm passage
(3) Provide a site for fertilization
(4)Provide a site and nutrients for gestation
(5)has to deliver infant, parturition.
(6) Provide nourishment for infant after birth.
Primary sex organ - contains ova, regulates cycles...
Ovaries
What is the difference between uterine tube and fallopian tube?
They are the same thing. No difference.
What is the difference between uterus and womb? what is their purpose?
They are the same thing. No difference. It is the site of internal development of embryo.
this muscular tube gives opening for injection of sperm and is the passage for baby coming out at childbirth...
VAGINA
Collectively, the external genital organs of the female are called...
Vulva (includes Clitoris, inner 'Labia Minora', and outer 'Labia Majora)
The main regulator in monthly cycles for females is the ____(1) cycle.
(1) Ovarian
-These two hormones are from the Pituitary gland and are involved in female montly cycles.
-These two hormones are released from ovaries.
-FSH and LH are from pituitary gland.
-Ovaries release estrogen & Progesterone.
an oocyte is an immature ovum because it is stuck in middle of ...
Meiosis
These cells surround oocyte and acts as a nurse or supporting cell.
Granulosa cells
In puberty for females the cycle begins with the first production of (two hormones), this starts maturation of ___(1)
In puberty for females the cycle begins with the first production of FSH and LH, this starts maturation of follicle(1)
During the follicular phase, the increase of this hormone(1) begins "follicle maturation."
During the follicular phase, the increase of FSH(1) hormone begins "follicle maturation."
What occurs during the first week of follicular phase? (mention follicles and granulosa
Several follicles start to mature and grow, granulosa proliferates.
What occurs at end of first week of follicular phase?
At end of first week, dominant follicle continues to grow and mature while other follicles regress and reabsorb.
Luteal phase is started by surge of...
LH
mentruation begins and leads back into ______(1).
Follicular phase
What are pituitary hormones levels at beginning of follicular phase?
FSH in increased a little at beginning. LH is low at beginning of follicular phase
What hormone surges at end of follicular phase? What happens to granulosa cell?
LH surge peaks @ ovulation. Granulosa cell that stay and converted into corpus luteum.
The _____(1) provides both estrogen + progesterone.
Corpus Luteum
About ____(1) week into the luteal phase, if there's no fertilization, the hormone production from _____(1) drops, leading to _____(3) cycle.
(1)one
(2)Corpus Luteum
(3) menstruation
In what part of the reproductive organs does menstruation occur?
Uterus
The _____(1)phase in the menstrual cycle is when great cell growth and division occurs.
(1) Proliferative
What begins to happen to endometrium in the proliferative phase? Are there any secretions?
Endometrium thickens and blood cells grow into it. Rich blood supply forms glands(no secretions).
During the proliferative phase, There are high levels of the hormone ____(1) with little to none of the hormone ____(2)
(1) Estrogen
(2) Progesterone
At what part of which phase does ovulation occur?
At beginning of Secretory Phase
During this phase, glands secrete nutrients to embryo if fertilization occurs in endometrium...
Secretory Phase
What stimulus regulates the secretory phase? (two hormones)
Stimulus of secretory phase are high levels of estrogen and progesterone
In fertilization does NOT occur, this is the end of _____(1) phase. There is a drop in _____(2) because the ______(3) produces no hormones.
(1) Secretory Phase
(2) Progesterone
(3) Corpus Luteum
This is the process of menstruation:
______(1) vessels constrict -> this causes outer layer to die -> then the ____(1) vessels dilate -> Blood flow rinses away dead cells -> menstrual flow
This is the process of menstruation:
Endometrial(1) vessels constrict -> this causes outer layer to die -> then the Endometrial(1) vessels dilate -> Blood flow rinses away dead cells -> menstrual flow
give the process of menstruation if no fertilization occurs.
This is the process of menstruation:
Endometrial vessels constrict -> this causes outer layer to die -> then the Endometrial vessels dilate -> Blood flow rinses away dead cells -> menstrual flow (then back to beginning)
What is the function of endometrium if fertilization occurs?
Provide nutrients for embryo.
just to look at
speaks for itself