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54 Cards in this Set

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This hormone(1) triggers the development of breast and milk secretion... Secreted by ____(2)
(2) Anterior Pituitary
Even though this hormone triggers development of breast and milk secretion, it also has some role in maintaining reproductive system in males...
not a true endocrine gland; neurosecretory organ, release site for hormones from hypothalamus.
Posterior Pituitary
How does Xport occur in Posterior Pituitary(1)? the ____(2) is treated as a synapse.
(1)Xferred down axons by action potential.
(2) capillary bed
What is the release trigger for hormones released by posterior pituitary?
Action potential, hormone released just like a neuroxmitter.
What does the hormone ADH do? What does this hormone regulate?
cause kidneys to reabsorb water. regulates volume of body fluids.
What does AVP (Vasopressin) effect(1)? causes (low/high)(2) urine concentrations.
(1)effects blood pressure by increasing it, causes kidney to reabsorb and conserve water.
(2) causes HIGH urine concentration.
This hormone triggers contraction of uterus during birth process and also triggers milk let-down reflex.
What effects does the hormone oxytocin have.(two mentioned in class)
-Triggers contraction of uterus during birth process.
-Triggers milk let-down reflex.
This gland sits on top of kidney and has a cortex (thick outer rind) and medulla (small inner zone)
Adrenal Gland
Review from Lecture 6:
Explain steps involved in the release of cortisol hormone starting from hypothalamus.(3 glands and 3 hormones mentioned, that's including cortisol)
Hypothalamus releases CRH hormone, causing anterior pituitary to release hormone AcTH, the causes adrenal cortex to release cortisol.
Which part of adrenal gland do the following characteristics describe?
1. From connective tissue near kidneys.
2. Converts aa to modified aa hormones like adrenaline and noradrenaline.
3. Parts of redundant system, sympathetic N.S. can perform most functions.
Adrenal Medulla
Which part of adrenal gland do the following characteristics describe?
1. Develops from connective tissue near kidneys.
2. Produces Steroid hormones
3. Hormones essential for proper body regulation.
Adrenal Cortex
80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine...
Glucocortocoid and mineralocortocoid are classes or hormones synthesized by...(give example of hormone in each of these classes.
Adrenal Cortex
-Hormone examples:
-CORTISOL is in Glucocortocoid class.
-ALDOSTERONE is in Mineralocortocoid class.
Cortisol is involved in regulation of energy metabolism. What affect does cortisol have on liver, and on muscles.
-Liver: stimulates liver to store glucose as glycogen.
-Stimulates muscles to reduce glucose use and to breakdown protein.
Overall, cortisol enhances effect of ____(1) and indirectly reduces body's sensitivity to ____(2)
(1) Glycogen
(2) Insulin
What hormone, if measured, can measure stress?
In response to effect of stress, What does cortisol do to (1)stomach, (2)Kidney, (3) Bone tissue, (4) muscle mass.
(1) Increases stomach acid
(2) Increases GFR in Kidney
(3) Reabsorbs bone tissue
(4) decreases muscle mass.
How does cortisol effect Immune system?
inhibits immune function like inflammation and specific immune reactions.
What function does the hormone Aldosterone have?
increases reabsorption of Sodium, and increases Potassium secretion.
What hormone increases reabsorption of sodium and increases potassium secretion?
What does Renin-Angiotensin system affect and how?
Increase [Na+] in blood by ultimately secreting aldosterone.
enzyme released by _____(1) in response to decreased Na+ concentration in blood.
(1)Renin-Angiotensin system
Angiotensinogen is found in blood, where it is cleaved by enzyme (protease) called ____(1). This converts angiotensinogen into _____(2).
(1) Renin
(2) Angiotensin I
A capillary wall enzyme converts Angiotensin I to ______(2).
(1) Angiotensin II
______(1) stimulates ______(2) to secrete aldosterone.
(1) Angiotensin II
(2) Adrenal cortex
This hormone causes Distal collecting tubule (DCT)& collecting duct to reabsorb Na+. This (increases/Decreases) Na+ in blood.
-Increases Na In blood
Potassium in blood is sensed by what organ?
Adrenal cortex
if [K+] in plasma increases, What hormone is secreted to control this and how is concentration lowered?
Aldosterone is secreted if potassium concentration in plasma gets too high. This causes kidneys to secrete Potassium. (Aldosterone works independently)
Mineralocortocoid and glucocortocoids are in same synthesis pathway as ____(1) hormones.
(1) Sex Hormones
Cortisol is (faster/slower) and (longer/shorter) effect in relation to pancreatic hormones.
Cortisol is SLOWER and LONGER effect in relation to pancreatic hormones.
Adrenal (cortex/medulla) is more important that Adrenal (cortex/Medulla).
Adrenal CORTEX is more important the Adrenal Medulla
What organ is functionally component of sympathetic N.S. in A.N.S. (involved in fight or flight response)
Adrenal Medulla
This is the development of what organ?
-Starts as ganglion, since there is no inn. peripheral nerve it forms an organ that releases a hormone the same way N.S. would release Nueroxmitter.
Development of Adrenal Medulla
receptors on the _____(1) organ respond to hormone is in same molecular family as receptors for neuroxmitter - same receptors for hormone as for neuroxmitter.
Adrenal Medulla
All epinephrine in blood originates in adrenal glands, Epinephrine prepares the body for vigorous activity known as _____(1) response.
(1) Fight or flight response
Adrenalin is released (slowly/ rapidly). Adrenalin is (slowly/rapidly) broken down by tissues. ____(1) percent of adrenalin removed in one pass through circulatory system. 1/2 life is ____(2) seconds.
Adrenalin is released RAPIDLY. Adrenalin is RAPIDLY broken down by tissues. 90%(1) of adrenalin removed in one pass through circulatory system. 1/2 life is 10-15 (2) seconds.
What affect does adrenalin have on Heart Rate(1) and Stroke volume(2), skin(3), lungs(4), liver(5), adipose tissue(6), eyes(7), digestive system(8)?
(1) Raises Heart Rate
(2) Increases stroke volume
(3) Vasocontricts skin
(4) Airways dilate
(5) liver dumps glucose into blood.
(6) Dumps fatty acids from adipose tissue into blood.
(7) Opens Iris
(8) Digestive system activity decreases.
If [Glucose] levels are high, the Pancreas secretes the hormone ____(1).
If [Glucose] levels are low, the Pancreas secretes the hormone ____(2).
(1) Insulin
(2) Glucagon
The main stimulus of Pancreas is ______(1) and minor stimulus are other hormones and _____(2) N.S.
(2) Sympathetic N.S.
These glands(1) are embedded in the thyroid and it releases the hormone ___(2).
The PARATHYROID GLANDS are embedded in the thyroid and release PTH(parathyroid hormone, this is a protein hormone)
under what condition would PTH be released? And what would it PTH do?
If [Ca++] in blood decreased, this stimulates secretion of PTH. PTH causes an increase in [Ca++] in blood.
What hormone raises [Ca++] by causing bone cells to breakdown minerals of bone... This mineral breakdown also puts Phosphate into blood.
What hormone causes Vitamin D to change into active form? How does active Vitamin D affect Ca++?
PTH. Active Vitamin D causes intestine to increase Ca++ absorption.
How does PTH influence nephrons of kidney?
Causes nephrons to reabsorb more [Ca++]
PTH leads to (increase/decrease) in blood [Ca++]
PTH leads to INCREASE in blood [Ca++]
What is the function of Calcitonin? How does it relate to PTH in animals and humans? Where can calcitonin be found in body?
Calcitonin is an antagonist of PTH in animals but not in humans. Calcitonin decreases blood [Ca++], released from thyroid gland.
How would an injection of calcitonin affect [Ca++]
Injection of Calcitonin decreases blood [Ca++].
Why don't normal levels of calcitonin cause decrease blood in [Ca++]?
Normal levels of calcitonin too low to cause change in [Ca++].
What would lead to reversal of PTH effects in body?
Absence of PTH
In absense of PTH what would happen with BONES(1), Vitamin D(2), Ca++(in kidneys and intestines)(3)
In absense of PTH, BOnes increase mineralization(1), Vitamin D is inactivated(2), reduces Intestinal Ca++ absorption in and reduces kidneys reabsorption of Ca++(3).
This ion is regulated because it is used in synapses, Neuromuscular joint, smooth and skeletal muscle, cardiac cycle, and bones...
@ the beginning of Puberty, the Hypothalamus secretes the hormone ____(1), which causes the _____(2) to secrete these two hormones ___(3).
@ the beginning of Puberty, the Hypothalamus secretes the hormone GnRH(1), which causes the ANTERIOR PITUITARY(2) to secrete these two hormones; LH and FSH(3).