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73 Cards in this Set

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If glucose concentration is low, what hormone is released?
Glucagon
How does glucagon influence adipose tissue when glucose concentration is low? (mention effect on muscles also)
reduced glucose uptake, release fatty acids into blood, and reduce glucose intake used in cell respiration in muscles.
When glucose concentration is low on blood, what happens to glycogen and what is it used for in muscles(1). What hormone does this(2)?
The hormone GLUCAGON(2) converts glycogen (polysaccharide) back into glucose to be used in cell respiration(1).
What purpose does protein serve when glucose concentrations are low in blood, what is it used for in muscles(1)? What hormone does this(2).
GLUCAGON(2) breaksdown proteins into amino acids that can be used in cell respiration. Amino acids used in cell respiration(1).
When glucose concetrations are low in blood, fatty acids are taken from blood and used for ____(1) in muscles.
(1) Cell Respiration.
This synergistic hormone is part of the _____(1) Nervous system and assists body while going into postabsorptive state. What is the name of this hormone(2)?
(1) Sympathetic N.S.
(2) Epinephrine
Even though ____(1) N.S. assists body in postabsorptive state by enhancing glucagon secretion, the ___(2) N.S. does not enhance insulin to have opposite effect.
(1) Sympathetic N.S.
(2) Parasympathetic N.S.
What type of diabetes is called "sugar diabetes"
Diabetes Mellitus
This type of Diabetes Mellitus is more common, non-insulin dependent, usually "adult onset". linked to being overweight.
Type II Diabetes
This type of Diabetes Mellitus has insulin present, but few or missing receptors on tissues.
Type II Diabetes
This form of Diabetes is more rare, insulin dependent, and is commonly called "juvenile".
Type I diabetes
This type of Diabetes has little or no insulin production. Autoimmune disease.
Type I diabetes
What are some consequences of Diabetes Mellitus? (mention: glucose concentration, kidney, osmotic processes, urine production.)
[Glucose] in blood rises dramatically and kidneys cannot reabsorb it all, this upsets osmotic processes, causes excess urine production.
How can excess urine production form diabetes cause Shock and what system can this damage?
Excessive urine production causes large losses of water, glucose and ions, this can cause shock which will eventually cause nervous system damage.
What system(s) can replace many of the glucagon effects?
Epinephrine and sympathetic N.S., also cortisol from adrenal cortex. (this is why there is no "missing glucagon" disease)
Low/absent insulin has almost the same effect on most tissues as ___(1), which is considered a mild postabsorptive effect.
(1) Glucagon (this is why there is no "missing glucagon" disease)
Work done + heat liberated + energy storage = change in ____(1) in a cell.
(1) energy
Change in energy in a cell = _____(1) + _____(2) + _____(3).
(1) work done
(2) heat liberated
(3) energy storage
muscles acting on the environment is ____(1) work, and anything in body that uses energy is ____(2) work.
(1) external
(2) internal
eventually all internal work can be measured as ____(1).
(1) heat
There is an energy balance when: Energy ____(1) = Energy ____(2) = ____ work(3) + ____(4).
There is an energy balance when: Energy intake(1) = Energy used(2) = external work(3) + heat(4).
In terms of energy used. what would cause body mass to be increased. (mention: energy intake, external work and heat, fat)
When energy intake > external work and heat, and increase in fat storage will cause body mass to increase.
In terms of energy used. what would cause body mass to be decreased. (mention: energy intake, external work and heat, fat)
When energy intake < external work and heat, fat storage is reduced for energy use and body mass decreases.
Sum of all cell respiration or rate @ which body consumes energy is _____(1) rate.
(1) metabolic
Traditionally, metabolic rate could be generally measured by recording _____(1) consumption.
(1) Oxygen
What are the SI units for measuring heat production? (energy/unit time)
Joules/sec
What is the basal metabolic rate ?
Lowest resting level of metabolic rate.
In order to measure ____(1) body must be in postabsorptive state, at rest, at comfortable thermoneutral temperature, and person must be awake.
Basal Metabolic rate.
Thyroid gland hormones T3 and T4 have (direct/indirect) control of Basal Metabolic Rate. So if Thyroid hormones levels are increased, Basal metabolic rate is (increased, decreased, unchanged)
Thyroid gland hormones T3 and T4 have DIRECT control of Basal Metabolic Rate. So if Thyroid hormones levels are increased, Basal metabolic rate is INCREASED.
If Thyroid hormone increases, Oxygen consumption (increases, decreases, unchanged)
If Thyroid hormone increases, Oxygen consumption INCREASES
If Thyroid hormone levels are increased, Body temperature is (increased, decreased, Unchanged)
If Thyroid hormone levels are increased, Body temperature is INCREASED
Thyroid hormones are stimulated by ____(1) which comes from _____(2).
(1) Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)
(2) Pituitary gland.
Where does thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) come from and what does it stimulate?
TSH comes from Pituitary and it stimulates Thyroid hormone production.
Can Basal Metabolic Rate Change from doing various activities?
NO, but metabolic rate can
Metabolic scope can be put in a ratio by using this equation:
_____(1)/_____(2)
Metabolic scope can be put in a ratio by using this equation:

Metabolic Rate(1)/BMR(2)
Satiety center in hypothalamus regulate _____(1)
Hunger
What hormone sets BMR?
Thyroid hormone
Energy balanced is determined by ____(1) which sets BMR, and ____(2) which ideally matches external work, among other things.
(1) Thyroid Hormone
(2) Food intake
For simple organisms , satiety center in hypothalamus controls hunger that is strictly physiological, where a balance of insulin, glucagon, and TH is all that's needed.
-What other factors influence hunger in humans other than satiety center?
Pyschological, stress, habit, food preferences, and food appearance.
Leptin is a extremely potent appetite suppressant in animals, is it in humans as well?
In humans Leptin effects are very weak.
____(1) is regulated by hypothalamus and stimulates release of T3 + T4.
(1) TSH (Thyroid Stimulating hormone)
The ____(1) gland is a amplifier for brain hormones and has two parts; anterior and posterior ____(1).
(1) Pituitary gland
The (Anterior/Posterior) Pituitary or adenohypophysis is a true endocrine gland.
The ANTERIOR Pituitary or adenohypophysis is a true endocrine gland.
The (Anterior/Posterior) Pituitary or neurohypophysis is an outgrowth of neural tissue from brain, a neural secretory organ. This is the release site for hormones produced in the brain.
The POSTERIOR Pituitary or neurohypophysis is an outgrowth of neural tissue from brain, a neural secretory organ. This is the release site for hormones produced in the brain.
This part of Pituitary is a true endocrine gland...
Anterior Pituitary (adenohypophysis)
This part of Pituitary is the release site for hormones produced in the brain.
Posterior Pituitary (aka neurohyphohysis.)
This organ regulates the pituitary...
Hypothalamus
How does hypothalamus regulate pituitary? (different for anterior and posterior.)
-Hypothalamus releases hormones to anterior pituitary to regulate it.
-Hypothalamus regulates posterior pituitary through action potentials.
How is hormone transport from the hypothalamus to the pituitary an exception to the rules for hormone transport?
Hypothalamus directly releases hormones to target pituitary, no circulation throughout body is required.
What is the path of hormones from hypothalamus to pituitary?
Portal system capillary -> vein -> capillaries.
How is a direct portal system advantageous to hypothalamus and pituitary?
-Need less hormone since hormone is released directly.
- Much faster response.
_____(1) hormones act on another endocrine gland...
(1) Tropic hormone
___(1) production is controlled by TRH
TSH ( TRH is short for,Thyroid stimulating hormone releasing hormone)
____(1) releases TRH which stimulates _____(2) to release ____(3), ____(3) causes thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4 hormones.
(1) Hypothalamus
(2) Anterior Pituitary
(3) TSH
T3 and T4 set-up a nested negative feedback loop, these hormones causes Anterior Pituitary to release less ____(1), this causes hypothalamus to produce less ____(2).
(1) TSH
(2) TRH
CRH stimulates _____(1) to secrete ACTH which stimulates ____(2) to secrete ____(3)
(1) Anterior Pituitary
(2) Adrenal cortex
(3) Cortisol
this hormone inhibits the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), resulting in (single/nested)negative feedback loop of ACTH secretion
CORTISOL hormone inhibits the secretion of CRH, resulting in NESTED negative feedback loop of ACTH secretion
GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone) causes ____(1) to release ____(2) and ____(3)
(1) anterior pituitary
(2) LH (Luteinizing hormone)
(3) FSH
LH increases production of what hormones in females and males?
-Males: testosterone produced in testes.
-Females: estrogen and progesterone
GRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) stimulates ____(1), which stimulates release of ____(2).
(1) Anterior pituitary
(2) GH (growth hormone)
How is a direct portal system advantageous to hypothalamus and pituitary?
-Need less hormone since hormone is released directly.
- Much faster response.
_____(1) hormones act on another endocrine gland...
(1) Tropic hormone
___(1) production is controlled by TRH
TSH ( TRH is short for,Thyroid stimulating hormone releasing hormone)
____(1) releases TRH which stimulates _____(2) to release ____(3), ____(3) causes thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4 hormones.
(1) Hypothalamus
(2) Anterior Pituitary
(3) TSH
T3 and T4 set-up a nested negative feedback loop, these hormones causes Anterior Pituitary to release less ____(1), this causes hypothalamus to produce less ____(2).
(1) TSH
(2) TRH
CRH stimulates _____(1) to secrete ACTH which stimulates ____(2) to secrete ____(3)
(1) Anterior Pituitary
(2) Adrenal cortex
(3) Cortisol
this hormone inhibits the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), resulting in (single/nested)negative feedback loop of ACTH secretion
CORTISOL hormone inhibits the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), resulting in NESTED negative feedback loop of ACTH secretion
GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone) causes ____(1) to release ____(2) and ____(3)
(1) anterior pituitary
(2) LH (Luteinizing hormone)
(3) FSH
LH increases production of what hormones in females and males?
-Males: testosterone produced in testes.
-Females: estrogen and progesterone
GRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) stimulates ____(1), which stimulates release of ____(2).
(1) Anterior pituitary
(2) GH (growth hormone aka Somatotropin)
This hormone inhibits secretion of GH (growth Hormone)
GHIH (Growth Hormone inhibiting hormone)
Prolactin is secreted by ____(1)
Anterior Pituitary
An increase in TRH will (increase,decrease, not affect) TSH which in turn will (increase, decrease, not affect) T3 and T4 hormones.
Increase in TRH -> Increase in TSH -> increase in T3 and T4.