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53 Cards in this Set

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What organ secretes Bile?
Liver
Emulsifies fat such as triglycerides.
Bile salts
In the lumen of the duodenum, _______ arrange themselves around droplets of lipid, keeping them dispersed into a suspension called an emulsion. What is the purpose of _____?
-Bile Salts
-Bile salts form an emulsion, in this form, the fat has an increased surface area exposed to the action of pancreatic lipase.
____ is a waste product from hemoglobin breakdown.
Bile Pigment
Vitamins and Cholesterol are examples of ____ in the body.
Lipids
Where can lipase be found and what organ secretes lipase?
Lipase is found in the duodenum and is secreted by the pancreas.
_____ acts to convert triglyceride substrates found in oils from food to monoglycerides and free fatty acids(diglyceride).
lipase
_____ are spheres of cylinders of fatty acids(diglycerides) and monoglycerides.
Micelles
What is the assumed action of micelles close to cells lining small intestine?
Micelles are assumed to diffuse short distance through chyme to cell.
What happens to fatty acids that enter a cell that makes up small intestine?
Fatty acids are recombined into triglycerides.
From fatty acids: resynthesized Lipids in cell are sent to ______(2) where the Lipids are combined with _two items__(3). Secreted from cell by __(mechanism)___(4).
(1) Lipids or Triglycerides
(2) Endoplasmic Reticulum
(3) proteins and cholesterol
(4) Exocytosis
Triglycerides(mixed with protein and cholesterols) leaves cell through exocytosis, from there triglyceride enters ______(1), which is a lymph capillary. These 'fat packets' diffuse into lymph capillaries. Eventually fat packet is dumped into _____(2).
(1)Lacteal
(2) veins
Monosaccharides, simple sugars, and polysaccharides are examples of...
Carbohydrates
The principle storage for glucose in mammals comes from polysaccharide found in animal fat, this polysaccharide is called...
Glycogen
This enzyme is in saliva and pancreatic secretions. It splits polysaccharides into disaccharides and trisaccharides.
Amylase
What mechanism(s) bring sugars into cell? How do sugars get out of cell and into capillaries?
-Facilitated Diffusion and secondary active Xport bring sugars into cell.
-Sugars go out of cell and into capillaries by diffusion.
most carbohydrates are absorbed in the ____.
Duodenum
What do Proteases do, and what organ secretes Protease?
Proteases splits proteins into 2 & 3 amino acid fragments. Secreted by Pancreas.
What mechanism brings single amino acids into cell? How do they leave cell into capillaries?
Secondary active transport brings amino acids into cell.
-Leave by facilitated diffusion, down it's concentration gradient.
Any place where veins connect two sorts of capillaries is called a ______ system.
Hepatic portal
_______ veins go to liver instead of straight to vena cava.
Intestinal
Hepatic veins lead to...
Heart
Organize these four destinations in order of occurrence.
(1) Liver
(2) Intestinal Veins
(3) Hepatic Portal system
(4) Hepatic veins
Hepatic Portal System(3)-> Intestinal veins(2)-> Liver(1) -> Hepatic Veins (4)
What mechanism allows digestive tract to reabsorb 80-85% of the 8-9L of water added to digestive tract each day?
Na+ is actively pumped out cell and water follows by osmosis.
Name two minerals that are absorbed.
Calcium (Ca2+), and Iron (Fe).
Vitamins B and C are ___-soluble and move into cell by active Xport.
Water soluble
Vitamins A,D, and E are ____(1)-soluble, and there is no known mechanism but assumed to diffuse passively with _____(1).
Fat
Give two functions of large intestine.(larger diameter)
-Storage of undigestible material material.
-Remove most of remaining water by absorption.
What mechanism(s) allow water to be absorbed in large intestine?
Sodium is actively pumped out and water follows by osmosis.
Other than water, what else does the large intestine absorb?
material produced by bacteria living on undigestable material(small amounts of fatty acids and Vitamin K)
What type of movement occurs mostly in large intestine? How often?
Segmentation (mixing up), about every 30-minute cycle.
What causes mass movement leading to defocation in large intestine? How often does this happen on average? What gives us the urge to defocate? (Talk about movement and Stretch receptors.)
2-3 times daily. Strong Peristalsis causes material to be pushed into rectum in the form of feces. The stretching walls stimulate stretch receptors, this is the conscious urge to defocate.
Is the Defecation reflex intrinsic or spinal reflex?
Defecation is party intrinsic and partly spinal reflex.
What muscle can override the defecation reflex.
Conscious or voluntary control of the EXTERNAL anal sphincter can override reflex. Thank god
How does a mass movement or peristalsis in large intestine influence internal anal sphincter with respect to defecation reflex?
Internal anal sphincter large controlled by reflex, so a mass movement causes internal sphincter to relax.
What muscles contract to expel feces? Which are voluntary.(Five mentioned in class)
-Mostly non-voluntary: Internal anal sphincter, smooth muscle of rectum, distal large intestine.
-Mostly voluntary: External anal sphincter, abdominal, thoracic muscles.

Raised pressure forces expulsion.
The Digestive System is stimulated by ______(1) N.S. and inhibited by ____(2) N.S.
(1) Parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.
(2) Sympathetic nervous system inhibition.
Set of nerves that can control reflexes entirely within the digestive system are known as ____ N.S.
Intrinsic(enteric) nervous system.
Gastrin is a _____(1) hormone secreted by ______(2) and it also affects the ____(2), so the organ that secretes it is also affected. Causes increase in secretion of _______(3), release is triggered by _____(4) being in the stomach.
(1)peptide
(2)stomach, stomach
(3)stomach acid
(4)food
This hormone's release is triggered by specific molecules being present in food and stretching of stomach...
Gastrin
Secretin is secreted in _____(1) and is an antagonist of ______(2). Secreted in response to acid in ______(3), causing pancreas to increase ______(4) secretion.
(1)Duodenum
(2) Gastrin
(3)Small intestine
(4) HCO3- (Bicarbonate).
This hormone's release is triggered by acid in small intestine, so this decreases stomach acid production.
Secretin
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by _____(1) and upper _____(2). Secreted in response to _____(3) and ______(4) in small intestine.
(1) Duodenum
(2)Upper Jejunum
(3) fatty acids
(4) amino acids
This hormone's release is triggered by fatty acids and amino acids in small intestine. It causes gallbladder to contract and secrete bile into duodenum
Cholecystokinin (CCK)

-This is the hormone released by duodenum and upper jejunum.
Cholecystokinin(CCK) is an enhancer of _____(1), magnifying the affect of __same___(1) Present
(1) Secretin
This hormone is secreted by same part of intestine that secretes CCK, increases motility or movement of digestive tract.
Motilin. (released by duodenum and upper jejunum, same as CCK)
"Migrating Motility complex" causes peristaltic waves that travel whole length of small intestine. What hormones causes this event to occur?
Motilin
_____(1) is released in waves when fasting
(1) Motilin
What is it meant that the endocrine system does not exist in the sense of other organ systems?
This literal meaning infers that that some endocrine glands work together while some work independently, so glands do not work together like a true organ would.
A chemical released directly into blood which produces a response in target cell or target tissue is a... (hint: usually released in very small amounts)
Hormones
This chemical causes a physiological change in target.
Hormone
What is an endocrine gland?
A tissue or an organ that secretes a hormone.
The _____(1) and the _____(2) are secondary endocrine glands. (hint: organs in digestive system)
(1) Stomach
(2) intestines