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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two main functions of Kidneys?
Osmoregulation-regulate composition of body fluids.
Excretion-ridding body of chemicals
What is osmoregulation of the kidney and what three main components get adjusted.
Osmoregulation is regulation of composition of body fluids. Three components adjusted are water, salts, and pH.
During urine formation,what is reabsorption?(give examples of something that would be reabsorbed)
moving materials from filtrate of nephron back into the blood (i.e. water, sugars, amino acids)
During urine formation, what is secretion?
occurs after blood filtered, actively moving material from blood into filtrate of nephron.
During urine formation, what is filtration aka ultrafiltration?
small molecules pass through filter. Proteins too big and don't pass through filter.
during urine formation, what part of the blood is filtered?
blood plasma.
___ percent of blood supply is in kidneys. (hint: 1-2% of body mass)
how many mL/min are filtered throught kidney?
This molecule is used to measure mass balance since it is neither secreted or reabsorbed in kidneys.
Inulin ends up in urine if passed through filter.
What agent can be used as an indicator of renal plasma flow?
para-aminohippuric acid (PAH)
What is the smallest functional unit of kidney?
Past this point in the kidneys, all fluid is called tubular fluid.
From the proximal convoluted tubule and on is called tubular fluid.
This part of the kidney contains granular capsules, Proximal convoluted tubule, and distal convoluted tubule.
Cortex(looks granular)
This part of the kidney contains loop of Henle, and parallel collecting ducts.
Medulla(look fibrous)
this part of kidney reabsorbs water and ions, 3/4 of filtrate is reabsorbed here.
What is the average capillary hydrostatic pressure?
What is capillary colloid osmotic pressure(mmHg)?
What is the hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's space?
The opposing filtration of Capillary colloid osmotic pressure and pressure in bowman's space makes the net pressure in the capillaries go from 60mmHg to...(mmHg)
about 10-12mmHg
What is equation for GFR?
here it is
Renal plasma flowrate(RPF) measures the volume flow rate of plasma through kidneys. How could this be used to measure blood flow rate?
Dividing the answer for RPF by .55. The percentage of blood that is plasma is 55%.
what is the purpose of finding glomerular flow rate(GFR)?
this equation is a mechanism to measure BLOOD flow through kidneys.
If [PAH] in urine is 36mg/mL, the [PAH] in plasma is 0.05mg/mL, and the Urine flow rate(UF) is arbitrarily 1. What is the RPF? What is the blood flow rate as well?
1x(36/0.05)=720mL/min plasma flowrate.

720/0.55=1300ml/min is blood flow rate.
What is the mechanism of water and ion reabsorption in PCT? (Why is 75% of water reabsorbed here)(mention Cl-)
Sodium(Na+) is actively pumped out of PCT which reduces osmotic pressure in PCT. Water osmosis passively follows sodium, Cl- moves out passively due to charge imbalance.
It is known that 75% of water is reabsorbed in PCT, how does this affect concentration.
There is very little change in concentration.
How much glucose is reabsorbed in PCT?
How much amino acids are reabsorbed in PCT?
about 90%
Explain process of glucose and amino acids movings from PCT to capillaries. (discuss diffusion)
Glucose and amino acids are actively pumped out of PCT into Interstitial fluid, From the Interstitial fluid, glucose and amino acids passively diffuse into capillaries.
Is urea reaborbed in PCT?
Urea is weakly reabsorbed(about 50%)
Which type of nephron has loops deep in cortex?
Juxtamedullary nephrons
walls very permeable to water, impermeable to ions...(give thickness and location)
Thin descending limb(no part is called thick descending limb; from medulla to loop of henle)
This part of nephron is permeable to ions, impermeable to water...(give thickness and location)
Lower thin ascending limb(coming out of medulla.)
This part of nephron actively pumps ions out of tubular fluid and into interstitial fluid.(1st pump moves 1 NA+, 1K+, and 2Cl- from Tubular fluid fluid into cell, second pump moves from cell into Interstitial fluid, Cl- passively in and out of cell)
Upper thick ascending limb(from outer medulla to Distal convoluted tubule)
This part of kidney is very important in setting up large concentration gradients used by collecting duct to adjust urine concentration.
Loop of Henle.