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48 Cards in this Set

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biconcave disks that are 7-8microns with a lifespan averaging 120 days are...
RBCs
What condition would result if barometric pressure was decreased? (Low O2)
Hypoxia
what is the result of lowered O2? (hypoxia)
creation of erythropoietin.
What is the function of erythropoietin?
tells bone marrow to make RBCs.
Most numerous element in blood is?
RBCs
These are a defense mechanism found in the blood, essential for immune response, phagocytosis.
White blood cells aka leukocytes.
What are thrombocytes and what are they needed for?
Blood platelets, they are fragments of a larger cell and are needed for Blood Coagulation.
What is hemostasis?
To stop bleeding.
what causes vasoconstriction(mechanically)?
contraction of smooth muscle in wall of vessel. local event
aggregation of platelets in small vessel can form...
a platelet plug
Give general info on the three stages of blood coagulation
Stage I - Formation of prothrombin Activator complex.
Stage 2 - Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.
Stage 3 - Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin strands.
What protein leads to formation of Prothrombin Activator Complex (PAC)?
THromboplastin
Trauma to tissue (intrisic or extrinsic pathway of blood coaguation)?
Extrinsic
blood in glass (intrisic or extrinsic pathway of blood coaguation)?
intrinsic
what is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic pathways?
intrinsic happens inside the blood while extrinsic occurs from events that begin in tissues outside of the blood.
What turns fibrinogen into fibrin?
Thrombin
What is needed to turn fibrin monomer into fibrin polymer
Calcium is essential for polymerization. Fibrin stabilizing factor.
What turns prothrombin(present in blood) into thrombin?
Prothrombin Activator complex (PAC)
What is serum?
Fluid pushed out of clot after coagulation, does not contain clotting factors.
What anticoagulant effects mast cells?
Heparin
A calcium chelator such as EGTA can be used as...
An anticoagulant since Ca2+ is a necessary component of blood clotting.
What vitamin is responsible for some clotting factors?
Vitamin K
What causes a stroke?
Blood clot within the brain.
What causes heart attack?
Blood clot in heart vessel.
How to remove a blood clot?
Fibrinolysis by serine protease.
Fibrinolysis can be done by this serine protease, ____(1) which is released by _______(2).
1-plasmin
2-plasminogen
Tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase (Beta-hemolytic streptococci) has what role in relation to blood.
turning plasminogen(globulin) into plasmin (fibrin).
AP in the heart is called....
Cardiac impulse
Cardiac impulse is what kind of event? (systolic/diastolic)
systolic
Explain phases and details for this representation of transmembrane potential in a typical cardiac cell.
0-rapid depolarization; opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels.
1-notch-"fast" Na+ channels close shortly after opening.
2-Plateau phase-depolarization maintained by increasing Ca++ Conductance and keeping K+ conductance low.
3-Repolarization phase;Increase in K+ conductance.
4-Resting potential.
Refractory period
does not respond to same stimuli, must be increased.
Absolute Refractory period
no response regardless of stimulus
Refractory period is exceptionally long, what does this mean for Absolute Refractory period?
ARPeriod is about 70-85% of AP.
What structure in cardiac muscle makes electrical activity from one cell to it's neighbor possible?
Gap junctions.
Relaxation (diastole/systole)?
diastole
contraction (diastole/systole)?
systole
give name of every red dot
Chapter 11 Fig. 1
Give the first four steps of cardiac impulse, beginning at initial AP.
SA node -> AV node -> Bundle of His ->Purkinje Fibers
What node depolarizes spontaneously? And what is spontaneous depolarization?
SA node. Spontaneous depolarization means without external electrical stimulation from the nervous system.
How many times in a minute does SA node mormally depolarize?
70 times
What is an ectopic pacemaker
If cardiac impulse originates @ place other than SA node, aka abnormal pacemaker.
What would cause a compensatory pause.
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC). Extra details on PVC; extrasystole originated from an ectopic focus located in ventricles, makes QRS broad and unusual. premature atrial contraction have an early P wave with modified shape.
Where can Beta-1 receptors be found and what effect to they have?
Heart contains B1-receptors which riase HR and contractility. (sympathetic)
Where can Beta-2 receptors be located and what effect do they have?
Lungs, cause bronchodilation. (sympathetic)
Abnormal bronchoconstriction is a problem known as...
Asthma
What is best drug type that cuases vasodilation of bronchioles?
Beta-2 Agonist ( adrenergic)
Why would epinephrine be a bad choice for causing vasodilation clinically?
Effects more than just Beta-2 Agonist, would have many side effects.
Give name of synthetic Beta agonist and antagonist.
Agonist: Isoproterenal
Antagonist: Propanalol