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17 Cards in this Set

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What is type 1 hypersensitivity commonly referred to as?
Type 1 = allergies w/ IgE mediation
What immunoglobulin mediates Type I Hypersensitivity reactions?
IgE
What immunoglobulin mediates Type II, III hypersensitivity?
IgG
What immunoglobulin mediates Type IV hypersensitivity?
snap! no Ig, this is mediated by T cells
What three cells are the major player in Type I hypersensitivity?
Mast cells - mucosal & epithelial tissue
Eosinohpils - connective tissue
Basophils - circulation
What is hypersensitivity?
excessive immunological sensitivity to non-damaging allergens
What is the biggest contributor to allergies?
dust mite feces!
How to develop allergy sensitization?
1. initial exposure
2. allergen is presented via APC to T cell
3. IgE is generated as a result
4. IgE binding to Fc(epsilon)RI on mast cells in preparation for second exposure
5. IgE bound mast cell provides IL-4 and CD40L:CD40 co-stimulation for B cells to produce more IgE
What happens after sensitization during any subsequent interaction with the allergen?
1. allergen exposure takes place
2. allergen binds several IgE on mast cell surface (cross-linking)
3. cascade causes granules to be released containing histamine, TNF-alpha, other inflammatory mediators
4. local inflammation occurs which is perceived as an allergic response
What are the physical effects of degranulation?
1. increased fluid secretion and peristalsis of GI tract
2. decreased diameter, increased mucus secretion of airways
3. increased blood flow and permeability of blood vessels
What does atopic mean?
1. you are predisposed to allergies, possibly genetically.
2. ability to quickly produce immediate hypersensitivity reaction by innocuous antigens mediated by IgE
What are the phases of an allergic reaction?
1. immediate - IgE:mast cell degranulation
2. late-phase - release of inflammatory mediators synthesized by mast cells after activation
What two routes of allergen entry can cause anaphylaxis systemic immune responses?
intravenous
ingestion
What is allergic asthma?
a hypersensitivity response that occurs after initial sensitivity that causes:
1. acute inflammation and mast:IgE degranulate to increase mucus secretion, contract smooth muscle, increase permeability
2. chronic response caused by recruitment and degranulation of eosinophils which eventually causes tissue restructuring
What is systemic anaphylaxis?
intravenous hypersensitivity I response where mast cells degranulate systemically which causes a systemic inflammatory response
Tx for allergies?
1. behavioral modification to avoid allergen
2. block inflammation caused by allergen
3. induce tolerance by systematically slowly increasing exposure to cause IgE -> IgG4 and Th2 anergy
What is the relationship between parasite (helminth) infection and allergies?
there is a correlation between increase of parasitic infections and decrease in allergies