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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
maxillary tumour symptoms
teeth fall out, lacrimal duct blocks, exopthalamos, nosebleeds, facial pain
inner circle of nodes
retropharyngeal, paratracheal, pretracheal
outer circle of nodes
occipital, preauricular, buccal, submandibular, submental
deep cervical nodes
int. jug. vein, esp. jugulodigastric, jugulo-omohyoid
waldeyers ring
tubal tonsils, palatine tonsils, adenoids, soft palate, lingual tonsils
quinsy
peritonsillar abscess – difficulty swallowing, speaking, opening jaw, referred pain from IX
tonsils
extensive blood supply and venous drainage – palatine and tonsilar br. of facial artery
retroperitodean space
rouviere + other nodes may compress carotid sheath, IX, X, X, XII, and symp. trunk (direct comp. or lymph spread)
main nerves in infratemporal fossa
V3, lingual, inf. alveolar, chorda tympani of VII
maxillary artery branches
middle meningeal, inf. alveolar
nasopharyngeal tumour spread
thru carotid canal, foramen ovale: middle cranial fossa. to temporal fossa. through infratemp – parotid, submand. glands, pterygoid musc. Via eustachian tube.
nasopharyngeal border
anterior carotid canals, pharyngeal tubercle, medial pter. plt.
main tongue muscle
genioglossus
carcinoma of tongue might block
jug. veins, lymph drainage
operation to remove tongue tumour/related tissues
commando op: side of tongue, musc. floor of mouth, mandible, cervical nodes, sternomastoid, int. jug. vein
repair after tongue tumour op?
myocutaneous flap and bone from chest 5th rib – mandible, pec major – musc. for floor of mouth, skin – fl. of mouth
anterior 2/3, tip lymph drainage
submand-deep cervical. submental-submand, deep cerv.
if tumour of tongue more posterior, then what nodes?
more posterior tumour is, will involve nodes higher up.
tongue tumour spread?
soft palate, floor of mouth, mandible, posterior 1/3, tonsil
superior and middle thyroid veins drain where
internal jugular
inferior thyroid vein drains where
left brachiocephalic
superior pharyngeal constrictor innervation, mid, inf.
Vagus/access, vagus/access, sup.&rec. laryngeal/access
sensation to pharynx
naso:V2, Oro: IX, Laryngo: Vagus
space behind pharynx and significance
retropharyngeal betw. pre-vert fascia and carotid sheath– tumour/infection spread from head-abd
what keeps nose open at top of pharynx
pharyngo basilar fascia
connection of sup. constrictor
pharyngeal tubercle, hamulus of med. pterygoid
middle constrictor originates
hyoid bone
structures at risk during carotid reaming out
endarterectomy: vagus (laryngeals), hypoglossal
methods for reducing emboli
blood thinners, aspirin
when small emboli pass through cerebral vessels
platelets/lipids: cause transient ischemic attacks – usually on same side/structure (bloodflow=laminar) sudden loss of vision, sudden weakness, vertigo. HARBINGER: bad things
what is a carotid clamp for?
if huge middle cerebral aneurism, need to reduce flow: danger of bleeding. put small clamp (tap) on carotid, gradually reduce to ensure enough collateral flow elsewhere before turning off entirely
path of vertebral artery
subclavian – transverse processes – foramen mag – basilar
common, internal, external carotid flows
500, 350, 150 ml/min
crocodile tears
fracture of petris bone, when healing nerves to lacrimal and salivary glands cross
carotid artery tear in cavernous sinus
carotid-cavernous fistula
nerves in cavernous sinus
III, IV, V1, V2, VI (within sinus
tumours enter cavernous sinus through foramen lacerum or other prexisting holes, or chew new ones
petro-sphenoidal syndrome
nasociliary innervates
dilator pupillae, muellers mus., orbital vess. lacrimal glands,
pupil dilation pathway
hypothalamus-T1-sup.cerv.gang.-carotid-opthalmic nerve
causes of eye swelling
tumours, infection from sinuses, vessel malformations, lymph swelling, endocrine disease (hyperthyroid)
choroid plexus tumour
will fill in ventricles, create lesion, bulge gyri
space occupying lesion in brain – effect
coning – brain shifts to accommodate, may herniate through dura, disturb resp. patterns, compress cerebellum/brainstem
fracture of frontal sinuses – danger
meningeal tear (CSF-nose, blood in sinuses, air into subarach. space: INFECTION) CSF leak, drop in CSF pressure, brain settles down on infection site-meningitis/encephalitis
nodules on vocal cords
screamers nodules – overgrowth of epithelium
Two muscles near eustachian tube, and their innervation
Levator Palatini (Vagus), Tensor Palati (Trigeminal)
inner eye/outer eye
medial/lateral canthus
small medial fold of skin, lateral to caruncle
plica semilunaris