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66 Cards in this Set

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Case Control study

- compares what groups?
- asks "what......?"
- with DISEASE vs. without DISEASE

- "What HAPPENED?"
Case Control study

- measures what?
- Odds Ratio (OR)
Cohort study

- compares what groups?
- asks "what ......?"
- w/ RISK FACTOR vs. w/o RISK FACTOR

- "What WILL HAPPEN?"
Cohort study

- measures what?
- Relative Risk (RR)
Cross Sectional Study

- asks "what .......?"
- "What ...IS HAPPENING?"
Cross Sectional Study

- measures what?
Disease Prevalence

(Dz freq. & related risk factors)
Cross Sectional study

- can show what?
- but does NOT show what?
- Risk Factor association with Dz

- does NOT Establish Causality
Twin Concordance Study

- compares what data?
- compares btw what groups?
- Frequency of Dz (prevalence)

- monozygotic twins & dizygotic twins
Adoption Study

- compares what data?
- compares btw what groups?
- Frequency of Dz (prevalence)

- Siblings raised by biologic vs. adoptive parents
Twin Concordance study measures?

Adoption study measures?
- Heritability

- Heritability & Environmental Factors
Clinical Trials Phase I

- Sample size
- Type of patients
- Purpose
- Small number of patients

- Healthy volunteers

- Pharmacokinetics
(safety & toxicity)
Clinical Trials Phase II

- Sample size
- Type of patients
- Purpose
- Small number of patients

- Pts with Disease of interest

- Pharmacodynamics
(efficacy & dosing & side effects)
Clinical Trials Phase III

- Sample size
- Type of patients
- Purpose
- Large number of patients

- Pts with Disease of interest
randomly assigned to either New Tx or to best available Tx (or placebo)

- Compares new Tx to current standard of care
Highest echelon of clinical evidence occurs with what type of study?

How is this study performed?
Meta-Analysis

- pools data from several studies to achieve overall conclusion
Sensitivity & Specificity Table
Sensitivity & Specificity Table
Ratio Calculation Table
Ratio Calculation Table
Hypothesis Table
Hypothesis Table
Sensitivity = ?
= TP / (TP + FN)
Specificity = ?
= TN / (TN + FP)
Sensitivity --> 1 is desirable to rule _____ disease?

Specificity --> 1 is desirable to rule _____ disease?
- Out
(indicates low FP rate)

- In
(indicates low FN rate)
Sensitivity = 1 - ?

Specificity = 1 - ?
- False Negative rate

- False Positive rate
If 100% sensitivity, then all negatives must be?
- True Negatives

(FN = 0)
If 100% specificity, then all positives must be?
- True Positives

(FP = 0)
Sensitivity is used as a screening tool in what type of diseases?
- diseases with Low Prevalence
Positive Predictive Value (PPV) = ?
= TP / (TP + FP)
Negative Predictive Value (NPV) = ?
= TN / (TN + FN)
Sensitivity measures _______ of people who ______.

PPV measures _______ of test results that are ______.
- Proportion
- Test Positive

- Probability
- TP
A, B, & C indicates?
A = 100% sensitive
B = Most ACCURATE
C = 100% specific
Under what conditions would a High Sensitivity or Specificity provide a Low PPV?
- if the Prevalence is Low
Odds ratio = ?
= (a/d) / (b/c)

(or .... = ac / bd)
Relative risk = ?
= [a / (a+b)] / [c / (c+d)]
Attributable risk = ?
= [a / (a+b)] - [c / (c+d)]
H0 is what?
H1 is what?
- Null hypothesis
- Alternate hypothesis
Null hypothesis implies what association?
No association btw Dz & Risk factor
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) implies what association?
- Association exists btw Dz & Risk Factor
Alpha & Beta is what type of error?
Type I error

Type II error
Type I error (Alpha) occurs when a study shows what?
Effect (or difference) Exists
when in reality None Exists

("convicting an innocent man")
Type II error (Beta) occurs when a study shows what?
No Effect (or difference) Exists
when in reality, it Exists

("setting a guilty man free")
In assessing errors, what is ... p?
- probability of making a Type I error
In assessing errors, what does it mean when p < 0.05?
- less than 5% chance that
data will show something
that is NOT really there
Mistakingly accepting Experimental hypothesis (H1), while rejecting Null hypothesis (H0) is called?
- Type I error
Mistakingly accepting Null Hypothesis (H0), when in reality the Experimental Hypothesis (H1) is false is called?
- Type II error
Power is defined as the probability of?
- rejecting Null hypothesis (H0)
when it is false

(likelihood of finding a difference that exists)
Equation

- Power = ?
= 1 - B
Percentage within

- 1 standard deviation
- 2 standard deviation
- 3 standard deviation
- 68.0 %

- 95.0 %

- 99.7 %
Equation

- Standard Error of Mean (SEM) =
= SD / (sqrt of n)

(SD = Standard Deviation)
(n = sample size)
As SAMPLE SIZE (n) increases,

- Standard Error of Mean (SEM) will?
- compare SEM to SD
- decrease

- less than SD
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL (CI)

- is the range btw?
[mean - Z(SEM)]
to
[mean + Z(SEM)]
95% Confidence Interval implies what:

- p value?
- Z value?
p = 0.05

Z = 1.96
Define ........ t - test
Difference btw the MEANS of 2 groups

("Mr. T is Mean")
Define ....... ANOVA test
Difference btw the MEANS of 3+ groups

(ANalysis Of VAriance of 3+ variables)
Chi-Squared (X^2)

- compares?
2 or more proportions (or percentages)

(or categorical outcomes, not means)
Correlation Coefficient (r)

- if value is closer to 1, it implies what?
- stronger correlation btw 2 variables
Equation

- Coefficient of Determination = ?
= r^2
BMI

- equation
= [(weight in kg) / (height in meters)^2]
BMI

- normal values
- obese values
- morbidly obese values
Normal: 18.5 to 24.9

Obese: > 30.0

Morbidly Obese: > 40.0
Type of Skew & Implies what?
Positive Skew
(Positively RIGHT on the Tail)

Mean > Median > Mode
Type of Skew & Implies what?
Negative Skew

Mean < Median < Mode
(Left Tail...Means Less)
What variable is affected LEAST by Outliers?
- Mode
Random Error

- implies test study has REDUCED value of what?
(REP SAV)

- Reduced PRECISION
Systemic Error

- implies test study has REDUCED value of what?
(REP SAV)

- Reduced ACCURACY
Precision implies what occurence in test measurements?

Precision implies the absence of what in test measurements?
- Consistency & Reproducibility
(Reliability)

- Random Variation
Accuracy implies what occurence in test measurements?
- Trueness
(Validity)
Picture depicts what?
Left = Accuracy (reliability)

Right = Precision (validity)
H0 is NOT rejected, if the 95% CI for:

- MEAN difference btw 2 variables .....
- includes 0
H0 is NOT rejected, if the 95% CI for:

- OR or RR ........
- includes 1