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    Primary Osteoarthritis

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    INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis is a disease, which results from mechanical and biological events that destabilize the normal processes of degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage chondrocytes, extracellular matrix, and subchondral bone. These changes include increased water content, decreased proteoglycan content, and altered collagen matrix, all leading to the deterioration of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis can be classified into primary and secondary types Primary osteoarthritis…

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    Giant Cell Tumors

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    The most common bone tumors of the foot and ankle are osseous and cartilaginous lesions, including enchondromas, osteochondromas, and chondromyxoid fibromas [1]. Giant cell tumors (GCT), chondroblastomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas also occur. Non-neoplastic conditions include intraosseous lipomas, simple (unicameral) bone cysts, and aneurysmal bone cysts [2]. GCT, also known as osteoclastomas, are fairly common bone tumors, accounting for 5% of all primary bone tumors. They are benign…

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    The sternoclavicular (or SC for short) joint is a synovial joint located in the shoulder girdle. It is a shallow saddle with articulated disc, with a functional classification of diarthrosis. The SC joint has multi-axial movement, allowing the clavicle to move on all planes. It is a strong joint well protected by a supporting network of ligaments. Problems most commonly found in this joint are Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and Gout. Osteoarthritis (OA) is most often considered to…

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    Bone Metastasis

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    Bone is a common site of metastases for many primarily malignant tumors, being the third location after liver and lung [5]. Bone metastases are a major clinical concern as they can deteriorate the bone structure causing pathological fractures, vertebral/spinal instability, severe pain, spinal cord compression, functional impairment and increased mortality. The vertebral column being the most frequent site of bone metastasis and one of the major organs in human body strongly correlated to neural…

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    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause. It is also known as brittle bone disease. OI can also cause many other problems such as weak muscles, brittle teeth, and hearing loss. About 20,000 to 50,000 people in the United States have OI. In this paper, I will cover the topics of etiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, treatment, and prevention (National Institute of Health). Etiology Osteogenesis…

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    Figure 2.3: The structure of bone (Abedon, 2014) 2.1.2 Mechanical Properties Bones is always considered as man-made engineering materials. Due to its synthesis there have more variation in properties than engineering materials. The factors can include as the location in body, mineral content, disease, age, gender and the amount of water that presence in the human body. The mechanical properties of bone tissues must be considered as very hard and lightweight material. Mechanical behavior of…

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    Introduction A fall injuries are common in elderly throughout the life span, but the importance of a fall event depends on the person's age. Young children fall frequently but they only suffer injuries with bruises and bumps while for elderly they result in fractures, lacerations, sprains, dislocations and subdural hematomas. However, falls in elderly can also result in serious injuries or even death. Today, the risk managers take a more positive contact by raising alertness that put staffs at…

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    Boron Research Paper

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    The element boron, not to be confused with Borax or boric acid, is an essential trace mineral for human health, helping to strengthen bones, increase absorption of other minerals, and to regulate the sex hormones in both men and women. Intake of boron helps the body absorb and utilize other minerals by interacting with steroid hormones. Boron is important for bone growth and maintenance as it reduces the urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium. The boron vertebrate transporter helps these…

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    Muscles In Care

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    As part of my role as a care worker, from time to time I may be required to assist service users to move or reposition them. It is important to understand the basic anatomy and physiology to help reduce any harm to myself or others when using moving and handling procedures. Muscles act like levers and allow bone, at a joint, to act like hinges. Muscles pull and move bones at particular joints which makes the joint move and therefor the body moves. When a muscle contracts it pulls the bone at a…

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    Bone Metastasis Essay

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    Abnormal growth associated with neoplastic conditions, disorders caused by anomalous metabolic processes contagions and malignancies result in metastasis in the skeletal tissue. The most frequent organ affected by metastases besides lung and liver is bone. Most of of these metastases are caused by breast or prostate carcinoma. Majority of patients with metastatic conditions develop bone metastases that further leads to a pronounced morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events…

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