Virulence

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    Vulnificus Research Paper

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    Once the organism attaches, it uses several other virulence factors to evade host immune system, such as a polysaccharide capsule, OmpU, and siderophores. The polysaccharide capsule allows the organism to evade opsonization and phagocytosis due to its slippery property as well as allows the organism to be resistant to bactericidal properties of serum and hide its immunogenic structures from the host nonspecific defenses [25]. An outer membrane protein, called OmpU, allows the organism to bind to host fibronectin, thus improving its chances of adhering to the host [26]. V. vulnificus further produces two siderophores, vulnibactin and deferoxamine, which allow the bacterium to sequester iron for survival through the use of heme receptors (HupA) [27]. Vulnibactin specifically uses HupA to steal iron from host transferrins and holotransferrins due to it having a higher affinity for iron, and deferoxamine promotes organism growth and iron uptake [28]. Variation between virulent and avirulent forms of V. vulnificus depends on the presence of these three virulence factors. Virulent forms are almost always encapsulated, serum resistant, and possessing the ability to acquire iron from iron-saturated transferrin, while avirulent variants lack these characteristics…

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    The marvelous laboratory manner to study bacterial infection by cytotoxicity assay Bacteria are one of the most diverse living organisms, which enable adapted to a great variety of environments including the human body(1). As we know, the Scientists are classified the bacteria to two classes: non- pathogenic bacteria or commensal organisms and pathogenic bacteria. Researchers are predominantly shed light on pathogenic bacteria due to these bacteria use a number of different virulence…

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    The chain of infection consists of a sequence of events that must occur for a disease or infection to take place. These events are steps that pathogens must take in order to reach a susceptible host. The host may be anyone lacking proper resistance to certain microorganisms. The chain of infection can only be commenced if there is an adequate amount of the infectious agent present. If the virulence of the pathogens is higher so are their chances of causing disease. A source for the…

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    Avian Influenza Pandemics

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    One mutation, PB2 E627K, has been demonstrated as sufficient to adapt avian H5N1 to mammals, and has been identified in multiple clinical isolates (Linster et al, 2014). Intriguingly, adaptive mutations are often associated with changes in virulence. While polymerase mutations that facilitate more efficient replication in mammals may increase viral titers and therefore increase virulence, this cannot explain every aspect of increased virulence associated with certain mutations, and ignores…

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    Bacillus anthracis is the causative organism of the serious infectious disease, called anthrax. There are three manifestations of this disease. The manifestations include gastrointestinal anthrax, inhalation anthrax, and cutaneous anthrax. This research will explore the morphology, virulence factors, reservoir, transmission, and portal of entry of B. anthracis. The pathogenesis will also be reviewed, including symptoms, how B. anthracis causes these symptoms, the possible complications of the…

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    expression. Saito et al. [29] observed the effect of catecholamines on P. gingivalis virulence factor expression by a microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The addition of norepinephrine resulted in a decrease in P. gingivalis AI-2 production, an increase in expression of 18 genes and a decrease in expression of two genes [29]. Among the up-regulated P. gingivalis genes were those encoding for protease RgpB (ArgX protease and a key P. gingivalis virulence…

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    S. aureus is clinically recognised as an important pathogen in terms of human infection. Despite its common presence in the natural microbiota of the human body, S. aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Infection with this pathogen can lead to a range of disorders from relatively mild skin infections to life threatening illness such as osteomyelitis. The ability of S. aureus to control expression of a virulent phenotype according to environmental conditions is regulated…

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    field of medicine although obtained remarkable progress in recent decades, infectious illnesses triggered by pathogenic harmful bacteria are still an important risk to public wellness globally (1). Great attention has been paid to the anti-microbial level of resistance due to deaths and death rate from illnesses triggered by proof bacteria(2). Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacteria that can cause different kinds of medical care associated attacks, such as pneumonia, bladder attacks,…

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    a. Agent Identity i. Reservoir can be either animate or inanimate. An example of animate is infections passed from animal to human are termed zoonoses, such as influenza, and rabies. An example of inanimate would be one where the source of pathogen is through media such as water, soil or food. b. Virulence of agent i. Major virulence of agent is toxin. The pathogen’s ability to produce toxin in known as toxigenicity, which alters the host cell’s metabolism. When the active growth of the…

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    The 1918 pandemic influenza was extremely deadly because of its strength of virulence, lack of treatment, and ease of transmission. The 1918 pandemic influenza was deadly because of its extremely high virulence. Virulence is the amount of damage the disease does to the body. The more virulent a pathogen becomes, the more likely the host of the pathogen will perish. The high virulence of the 1918 pandemic influenza gave it a case-fatality rate, which is the number of people killed per the total…

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