In this project, Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is studied. VRP is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. It appears in a large number of real world situations, such as transportation of people and products, delivery services, garbage collection etc. It can be applied everywhere, for vehicles, trains, plains; that is why Vehicle Routing Problem is of great practical importance in real life. The Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) are the ones concerning the distribution of goods between depots and customers. In particular, the solution of VRP calls for the determination of a set of routes, each performed by a single vehicle that starts and ends at its own depot, such that all requirements of the customers are fulfilled, all operational constraints…
manufacturing plants or central depots through the transportation network to consumers. It is an expensive function, especially for the industries involving distribution. The Operational Research literature has addressed this problem by calling it as the vehicle routing problem (VRP). Vehicle scheduling or vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a combinatorial optimization and integer programming problem. The Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) was introduced much before the Vehicle Routing…
capacitated vehicle routing problem
All kinds of the vehicle routing problem contain a series of essential elements, which primarily are depot, customers, goods, vehicles, routes and the constraints and objective functions proposed to resolve the problem.
1. Depot. Depot is usually the beginning point and terminal of every delivery route. In a specific vehicle routing problem, the number of depot can be one or more than one. The location of the depot can be fixed or flexible. But in capacitated…
Because of the global impact of such attacks, routing security is a critical issue for the whole Internet infrastructure. Attacks on routing protocols can cause legitimate traffic to flow over unsecure paths and create various types of security exposure for higher layer protocols ranging from eavesdropping to denial of service. Several routing protocols are used to exchange network topology and routing table information between routers. Commonly used intra-domain routing protocols are the…
Step1: Start the program
Step2: Initialize the nodes by fixing the number of nodes, type of antenna used, type of routing protocol and plotting circumference
Step3: Frequency is allocated for the MIMO antennas.
Step4: Positioning and plotting the nodes
Step5: Base Bandwidth allocation for primary and secondary nodes
• Primary network range- 2.4GHz - 2.485GHz
• Secondary network range- 433.4MHz - 473MHz
Step6: Setting time for node movement to move and setting the destination
Step7: Traffic is…
Queuing schemes provide predictable network service by providing dedicated bandwidth, controlled jitter and latency, and improved packet loss characteristics. The basic idea is to pre-allocate resources (processor and buffer space) for sensitive data. Each of the following schemes require customized configuration of output interface queues .
• First In First Out (FIFO): the simplest form, which also known as first-come, first-served (FCFS) queuing, involves buffering and forwarding of packets…
interface for switches, routers and middle-boxes1 from diverse vendors . According to Sarah Sorensen, the author of the book of “The Sustainable Network”, “SDN tackles the barriers that constrain scale, automation, and agility by decoupling the forwarding layer from the control layer, which provides a central view and control over the network.”
The basic idea behind SDN is to decouple forwarding plane from control plane, therefore SDN- capable switches are merely responsible for forwarding…
CODE: INYM 316
1. a) Why circuit switching does not exploit statistical multiplexing
Circuit switching deals with keeping some secure bandwidth when the circuit is being configured.
The statistical multiplexing means splitting some links among different connections depending on the needs arranged by the connections.
Circuits switching is not vigilant on whether single connections offers any other demands and spares bandwidth
It is therefore evident that it does…
This protocol is classified into rounds; every round composed of two phases;
(1) Advertisement Phase
(2) Cluster Set-up Phase
(1) Schedule Creation
(2) Data Transmission
A. Setup Phase: Every node selects independent of other nodes if it will become a CH or not. This selection takes into consideration when the node behaved as a CH for the last time. In the advertisement phase, the CHs inform their neighboring node with an advertisement packet that they become CHs.…
The solution to this problem leverages the same loophole as the one leveraged by attackers; the source address of the packet can be spoofed but the attacker has no control over the route that the packet will take. Hence it is this key observation that made the solution possible, that is analyze what can’t be manipulated by the attacker; the route. Now if a system knows about the best path from a given source to any destination and if it also has some information about the global topology, it can…