micro strip-fed through ports 1 and 2.The spacing between of antenna elements λ/4(0.270 ) over UWB. Different types of MIMO antenna systems have been proposed for UWB applications. The designed systems show good impedance characteristics in the frequency band of 3.1-
10.6 GHz, Thus fulfilling the FCC requirements for UWB communications. These systems also have very low mutual coupling and correlations, so they provide good diversity performance. These MIMO Antennas are composed of identical stepped patch elements. In fig.8 reflection coefficient of UWB MIMO antenna is presented, there has ≤ -20 dB isolation which resonant at 3.7, 4.7 and 6.4 GHz all over UWB (3.1- 10.6GHz).
B. Effect of Ground and Stub
For better isolation over wideband stub in ground proposed for the UWB antenna elements. Due to the inserting stub in ground plane of antenna there is increased in isolation over UWB. Edge to edge separation between elements is d (0.270…
activation and deactivation of radio transceiver, data transmission and reception are the tasks that is done by the physical layer. There are different physical layers. The choice of physical layer depends on the applications. The different physical layers are: Narrow Band (NB), Human Body Communication (HBC) and Ultra Wide Band (UWB).
NB physical layer is used for the activation or deactivation of the radio transceiver and data transmission and reception. The PSDU (Physical Layer Service Data…
Cyber-Security in Transportation
Technology in transportation can result in productivity gains, however a higher dependency on information technology also leads to greater exposure and potential of being a target for cyber-crimes such as denial of service, stealing of passenger private information and cyber terrorisms.
According to analysis for incidents from 2002-2004 transportation systems faced 16% of total cyber hackings and terrorisms on critical infrastructure (IEEE, 2007).…
Swaraj Panusa, Mithilesh Kumar, “Quad Band H-Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for WiMAX Application”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 103, No.12, 2014, pp 14 – 16.
Evizal Abdul Kadir, Siti Mariyam Shamsuddin, Eko Supriyanto, Tharek Abd Rahman, Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim, Sri Listia Roas, “ Multi Bands Antenna for Wireless Communication and Mobile System”, International Journal of Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Vol.8, 2014, pp 563 -568.
A company called Butterfly Network won clearance from the US Food and Drug Administration for the Butterfly iQ, a portable ultrasound system. The scanning system consists of a portable transducer or probe, a device that converts one energy to another, which connects to an iPhone, and an iOS app to display the images and control the settings.
Butterfly iQ has an ultra-wideband matrix array that enables three different transducers to be used. It allows clinicians to perform various scans that can…
communication the transmission medium used is human body, which has made much attention in personal area network(PAN).Since the signals pass through human body, the noise or the disturbances that interrups,obstructs,or the limits that effect the performance and interference is less to wireless technologies because the data is largely contained /transmitted with help of human skin. The characteristics of intra body communication are superior to those of other radio-based network technologies.
processing this information in our brains. Moreover, the valence electrons are responsible for binding atoms to form molecules. The structural change of molecule is triggered by motion of electrons in the chemical bonds. Controlling this fast electron motion, in turn, allows to control the molecular structure change. Additionally, the ability to take snapshots of the electron motion dynamics will improve our understanding of matter’s behavior.
The proposed program aims at tracing, controlling…
Broadcasting-Terrestrial (DVB-T) techniques and selected it as a suitable choice for lab experiment. The practical side of this project is to design and build a repeater incorporating suitable electrical delay.
1.0 Introduction 4
1.1 Background: 4
1.2 Aim of this project 6
1.3 Project objectives 6
1.3 Project deliverable 7
2.0 Problem analysis 8
2.1 Repeater 8
2.1.1 Analogue repeaters 9
2.1.2 Digital repeaters 10
2.2 Inter symbol interference 13
systems. TDMA methods are mostly used on the second generation (2G) systems, and not really used for the third generation (3G) systems. TDMA was used by Cingular or now called AT&T but they switched over to Global system for mobile (GSM) which is a TDMA based method.
More modern methods are used for cellular access, Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a method is widely used by major mobile phone companies. This protocol is used second generation (2G), third generation (3G), and fourth…
with the help of various modulation techniques. Even today, not only with the traditional methods of modulating analogue modulation, but also advanced methods such as Wi-Fi and 3G. (A. Goldsmith, 2005) Each type of communication is important in complexity, efficiency, accessibility and demand. All of these technologies, we can ask why there is a need for new methods. According to D. Tse and P. Viswanath (2005), solution could be to improve existing technology. With third generation (3G)…