This case study is going to describe the details of a chest examination undertaken on a 36 year old man who was involved in a road traffic collision (RTC) from the emergency department.
The request card for the examination had the following clinical details: 'Cyclist involved in RTC, query pneumothorax'.
Pneumothorax is a condition whereby the pleural cavity holds an accumulation of air resulting in the collapse of the lungs due to the pressure exerted on the lungs by the air collection (Crowley and Crowley, 2014). The pleural cavity lies between the pulmonary pleura of the lungs and the costal pleura of the chest wall. The severity of the collapse is directly proportional to the quantity of air present in the pleural cavity of…
The thoracic cavity has complex networks of lymphatics which have a fundamental immunological function protecting intrathoracic organs such as the lungs, pleura, oesophagus and mediastinum. These networks drain interstitial fluid from the lungs, chyle from the gastrointestinal tract, and white blood cells and other immune components (Brotons et al., 2012). Thoracic lymphatics are involved in several diseases that most thoracic surgeons are concerned about. The most important…
dog out if he has thick, crusty, or discolored mucus or if he is repeatedly pawing at his nose.
Why is my dog sneezing?
Dogs sneeze for several reason. Again, the most common cause of sneezing in dogs is allergies. Your dog cannot blow his nose, so in order to clear it of mucus, he sneezes.
He may also be sneezing due to a respiratory infection or other illness. If his sneezing becomes frequent, or is accompanied by other symptoms, you may want to have him checked out by a vet.
This is a 32-year-old male with a 7/3/2014 date of injury, due to a MVA.
DIAGNOSIS; Cervical spin e S/S, Lumbar spine S/S, Left shoulder S/S
12/08/15 progress note describes that the patient complains of neck pain at a 6/10-scale level; low back pain at a 6-7/10-scale level, which radiates to the right leg; left shoulder pain at a 4/10-scale level, which radiates to the left arm; and sleep problems. PE revealed slight to moderate spasticity and tenderness over the para-cervical muscles. ROM of…
This is a 45-year-old male with a 2-20-2015 date of injury. A specific mechanism of injury has not been described.
DIAGNOSIS: Sprain of joints and ligaments of unspecified parts of neck, initial encounter
01/11/16 Progress Report describes that 15 minutes were spent in review of the results from the urinary drug screen, which was administered at the previous visit and deciding whether any modifications are appropriate to the treatment regimen. The pain is better and down to a 3/10. The neck…
However use of this device requires a trained
operator. Calibration also needs to be done before using
the device. Flexible electrogoniometers are strain-gage-based
systems that consists of two light-weight end blocks fixed to
the twelfth thoracic vertebrae(T12) and sacral spine(S2)spinal
processes. They are separated by a steel spring and it protects a
narrow strip of steel foil. Strain gages attached to the foil
were used to monitor lumbar angle motion in two different
planes during both…
altered versions show validity for evaluating hamstring flexibility. However, they do not show a correlation to the assessment of lumbar flexibility. Nevertheless, within this article, they discussed how the hip joint, lumbar and thoracic spine contribute to the overall performance of Sit and Reach. This test was performed on 195 Brazilian boys ages 18 to 19. All individuals volunteered, weighed 152.02 ± 22.46 lbs. and had an average height of 69.29 ± 2.76 inches. The tests scrutinized each…
1. Anatomy of the trachea and bronchi.
The trachea (Fig.1) is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower part of the larynx, on a level with the sixth cervical vertebra, to the upper border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into two main bronchi, one for each lung. The trachea is nearly but not quite cylindrical, being flattened posteriorly; it measures about 11 cm. in length; its diameter, from side to side, is from 2 to 2.5 cm., being always greater in…
a) “What serosal cavities have been penetrated by the 1st arrow?”
The pleural cavity and pericardial cavity have been penetrated by the 1st arrow as they tend to appear in the thoracic cavity on the left side of the chest.
b) “Explain the location, the microscopic characteristics of the serous membrane, and the purpose of the serous membrane.”
The serous membrane, the peritoneum is located within cavities of the abdomen and the pelvis. Pleura are found in the thoracic cavity…
During quiet inspiration the diaphragm and external intercostals contract. When the diaphragm contracts it moves down which increases the size of the thoracic cavity from top to bottom. When the external intercostals contracts it elevates the ribs which increases the size of the thoracic cavity from front to back and from side to side. During forced inspirations sternocleidomastoid, serratus anterior, and pectoralis minor contract. Lastly, during forced expiration the abdominal muscles and the…